Journalism Now and Journalism Then: Evaluating Digital Revolution from a Journalistic Standpoint

When the history of 21st century is scripted, its first two decades will be marked as the period that transformed the very meaning of human existence. The unbelievable surge of digital technologies and the advent of the internet-based virtual world have been instrumental in reimagining humanity that we know or at least claim to know. Every area of human knowledge stands radically changed. Skills that were once considered a handful have rapidly become useless. No wonder that the larger domain of journalism has also undergone fundamental and structural changes.

Print has given way to the all-encompassing web; analog broadcasting has given way to digital broadcasting and plain text have given way to multimedia. With the gradual decline in the average attention span of news consumers, contemporary news can no longer afford to just inform. Infotainment has become the name of the game and interactive infographics have slowly started replacing the once dominant text information. While the first decade of the ongoing millennium was revolutionary for journalism and journalists on multiple counts, its second decade has changed the very approach of journalism. The coming in of the ubiquitous smartphone has heralded a brand new era in the practice of dissemination of information.

This article, albeit very limited in its scope, would make an effort to document the larger changes that has marked journalism and its various offshoots over the past one decade. Just so that one is clear, all these changes that we are referring to are not necessarily desirable. However, like everything else in life, journalism has also altered – for the better and also for the worse. For the purpose of easier comprehension, let us put some of those changes in the form of pointers:

1. The Predominance of Online Journalism: If the first decade of the new millennium belonged to television journalism, the second decade most surely belonged to online journalism. While the popularity of print journalism continued to dwindle, online journalism kept on growing. The liberal usage of multimedia and easier language made online journalism the hot favourite among both the millennials and members of the Generation Z. All existing studies and surveys predict the further growth of online media to the extent that it will be the only thing in the fray.

2. The Arrival of Social Media Journalism: Before delving into the trend, it is important to point out that social media and journalism are two different concepts and are not intrinsically connected to each other. However, the rapid increase in the usage of social media and the instant need for news somehow contributed to the growth of a new phenomenon known as social media journalism. Today, breaking news items break on Twitter and Instagram and Facebook pages serve as platforms for larger discussions on recent trends. Today, anybody from any corner of the world can post a piece of news for the rest of the world to see. It can be argued that social media journalism has largely democratized the flow of information.

3. The Growing Relevance of Alternative Media: There was a time when large corporate entities and media behemoths had absolute control on the collection, production and dissemination of news. However, thanks to the largely economical nature of the online medium, a good number of smaller and independent news ventures are cropping. While some of these media organizations have already broken even, there are many that are making rapid inroads into the larger news ecosystem. Consequently, geographical locations that were once considered fringe are increasingly featuring in the mainstream. Larger corporates have lost their monopoly on news.

4. The Ominous Entry of Fake News and Post-Truth: Thanks to Donald Trump, the former President of the United State of America, the world was informed about an essentially oxymoronic term called fake news. For the purpose of academical

propriety, we would rather use the three individual terms ‘disinformation’, ‘misinformation’ and ‘mal-information’. All these are different types of misleading or false information that owe their origins to a multitude of reasons including ignorance, propaganda and unholy political ambitions. While not entirely different, the term ‘post-truth’ probably has a wider ramification on the very sustenance of press as the fourth estate of democracy. Post-truth represents a dystopian scenario where emotions and personal convictions become stronger tools in shaping public opinions than objective facts. This phenomenon indicates a general disdain for logic and common sense.

5. The Increased Popularity of Infographics: The current generation has a general liking for representative visuals. Therefore, infographics serve as a potent tool to retain the consumers of news. To put it in simple terms, infographics are charts, visual data and statistics that help people digest complex information in a systematic and uncomplicated manner. We have come to a point when different news organizations report stories only through infographics. In the next few years, this trend is only going to grow.

6. The Gradual Vanishing of Gatekeeping: For all those who are not aware of what gatekeeping is, it is the process of filtering information before publishing. With blogs, vlogs, social media and personal websites slowly becoming the primary mode of disseminating news, gatekeeping as a phenomenon is increasingly losing its relevance. While this has democratized the flow of news to a large extent, news credibility and authenticity have become sore areas. It is expected that as we move ahead, a mechanism will be worked out that will impart balance to the whole process of journalism.

7. Mobile Journalism Is the Next Big Thing: Journalists across the world are increasingly using smartphones to gather, produce and disseminate news. In fact, mobile journalism or MoJo, as it is popularly known, has become so powerful that it is predicted that in the next one decade, journalism will be primary mobile.

8. News Virality: What was once called breaking news during the heydays of the broadcast revolution is now known as viral news. Some news become viral and gather a significant number of eyeballs in a very small span of time. In fact, the greatest mechanism to make a story viral is to put it on social media platforms.

While the points mentions above are rather generic and broadly define the transformation that marks the news industry, there are many others that are equally important, if not more.

However, for the purpose of brevity, we shall discuss the same some other day. Just in case you find this blog useful and relevant, please make it a point to share it with as many people as you like for them to know the changes that have engulfed the world of journalism.

Career Prospect Post-Pandemic: Film & Television

Everyone wants her or his name on banners, billboards, social media sites, television and newspapers – if you think it is tough, it is. However, if you think it is impossible, it is not.

The world of audio-visual production is undergoing a stark change, especially after the pandemic – the old structure of film-funding-making-distribution-exhibition is slowly fading away. New avenues are created, new paths are laid for such purposes.

Adamas University’s post-graduate program of M.A. in Film and Television is the course that realises one’s dream to be a filmmaker. With four dedicated semesters with courses covering both theoretical and practical aspects of filmmaking, the aspiring student will have the following ‘out-of-the-box’ career options at her/his disposal:

  1. Feature Filmmaker
  2. Documentary Filmmaker
  3. Short Filmmaker
  4. Corporate Filmmaker
  5. Advertisement Filmmaker

There are other avenues of the audio-visual industry, which might entice a youngster with promising career prospects. They are:

  1. Script Writing
  2. Assistant Director
  3. Script Supervisor
  4. Cameraperson
  5. Executive Producer
  6. Sound Designer
  7. Sound Recordist
  8. Editor
  9. Colourist
  10. Gaffer

Apart from these industry-oriented careers, M.A. in Film and Television and B.A. in Media Technology also come with an assurance of a career in academia. They are:

  1. Researcher
  2. Assistant Professor
  3. Subject Coordinator / Specialist

Primary Career Aspects in Details

  1. Feature Filmmaker

Filmmakers are one of the most popular faces and celebrities of the world – yes, more than a doctor or an engineer. It is not always about the paycheck that is collected at the end of the month, but it is all about what life can give you, and what you can give to life, and to the lives of the others. Filmmaking is a not a ten-to-five job. This profession aspires a lot of love, philosophy and of course, once the filmmaker is on track, he does not have to look back.

  1. Documentary Filmmaker

Documentary Filmmakers’ lives are not entirely different from the previous one, and more than often they are the same because a filmmaker makes all kinds of films. But the only difference that we can feel is that the documentary filmmaker is more accustomed to the realities of his world he is capturing on his camera and representing, and has a certain sincerity to the research and excavate the truth that she or he wants to unravel.

  1. Short Filmmaker

Short films are like poetry in comparison to the features, which are more like novels in their genealogy. However, shorts films are the launching pad for any filmmaker as they are mostly independent films and provide a rich portfolio or show reel for you!

  1. Corporate Filmmaker

Corporate filmmaking is a long advertisement made for a corporate company instead of a product or service as in advertisement. In the post pandemic era, this has become more than necessity because a company or a brand has to reach out to people instead of people reaching out to them.

  1. Advertisement Filmmaker

Ad filmmakers have an exciting as well challenging life to bring out the best of the ideas on audio-visuals, which will stick to the audience’s mind. Ad filmmakers are the best liars who are successful in reality.  

  1. Script Writing

Script is the heart of a film, series, serial and an ad. One has to know the art of writing to have engaging script. This demands the ideas of literature, music, history, politics and most importantly -emotional quotient along with a critical and thinking mind. This is the reason why the PG and UG programmes of Entertainment Media have courses on literature, theatre and music.

  1. Assistant Director

Assistant Directors are the most important second in command in a film who eventually evolves to be a director.

  1. Script Supervisor

They are the script experts, or to be precise, script-doctors. There are certain nuances, character and narrative arcs, developments in narratives in terms of three act-structures, development of plot points, hooks and references that are used, or rather planted in a script to make it more appealing.

  1. Camera person

Camera person, or DOP, needs to have a clear understanding of what the script and the director wants. If the director decides what shot and frame will be in a shot, the DOP decides how to create that particular shot to make it mesmerizing for the audience.

  1. Executive Producer

Executive Producers (EPs) have to have a thorough idea of the filmmaking process and have to control a production. Starting from the pre-production process till the end of post-production, an EP coordinates and controls the creative aspect of the entire production as bridge between the production company and the directorial team.

  1. Sound Designer

Sound is an area that is does not gain so much of attention except for those who are in the film industry. Sound is more complicated than visuals. In order to tell a story properly, any production requires a sound designer, who would take each and every aspect of sound into consideration – diegetic (the sound which has its source inside the narrative) and extra-diegetic (the sound that does not come from the physical aspect of the narrative, but psychological) and design it at the level of the script.

  1. Sound Recordist

In most of the cases, sound designer is the sound recordist. To be precise, a sound recordist has to record sound on and off the location, along with post-production sound.

  1. Editor

Editor of any audio-visual is the person who joins shots, puts transitions – in short, weaves images into a single strand we call a narrative. Editors are as important as the Cinematographers.

  1. Colourist

Colourists, similar to editors, balance colours and make the final output look charismatic. Colourists are one of the significant people in the post-production process of any film.

  1. Gaffer

Gaffer is the chief lighting technician of a film. The role of the gaffer is slowly gaining immense significance in India since the Indian film industry has realised the significance of light in a nay production that can change the mood, tempo and even the narrative arch

  1. Researcher

Project Fellowship, PhD, Post Doctoral degree and other such commissioned projects from various institutions, universities of India and Abroad along with the Film Archive of Pune and Online MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses) projects always require academic scholars of film, media, society and culture. Film and Television Studies encourages academic research as well as film criticism.

  1. Assistant Professor

Strictly academic, post-graduates of Film and Television students can dedicate their career to academic streams where the scholar can teach and train students in various colleges and universities in subjects like audio-visuals, advertisements, film and film making, film studies, cultural studies and so on.

  1. Subject Coordinator / Specialist

As mentioned above, a number of career opportunities have evolved for the freelance researchers and subject specialists in audio-visual medium. There are online courses. MOOCs like SWAYAM, Coursera, LinkedIn and a host of other evolving companies require subject experts and coordinators for creating academic content, images and even video contents for various subjects of media and other overlapping subjects

  1. Graphic Designer

Someone with an interest in software and creation of computer generated images and design can choose the career of a designer or an illustrator. As we are in a world that is dominated by the world of images as primary information vis-a-vis communication, the requirements for good designers (who can use pen, software, or any form) to communicate through visuals and designs (like illustrators in ad agencies) are acute. As we are speeding up in the information highway, designers are becoming an integral part for any industry.

  1. Animators

Animators create a world of their own. A number of television, OTT, film and ad productions always feel the need for an efficient animator. Apart from this, an animator can be an independent filmmaker on her or his own right on the basis of his skill of creating animation, both 2D and 3d although the latter is gaining more prominence.

Secondary / Tertiary Career Aspects

Courses on Media, Film and Television open up Pandora’s box. If the above 21 career paths were primary options for someone pursuing MA in Film and TV and BSc in Media Technology, there are uncountable secondary and tertiary career options open.

If someone has a flare for writing (both the courses thrust on writing skills – both creative and reportage), she or he can explore the options for:

  1. Film Critic
  2. Film Journalist
  3. Content Writer
  4. Promotional Video Maker
  5. Professional Blogger
  6. Professional Vlogger
  7. Social Media Strategist
  8. Social Media Manager
  9. Photographer
  10. Designer
  11. Radio Programmer
  12. Actor

Industries Open for our Students

Since film, media, television and culture are overlapping with technology, communication, business, information technology and print and even theatre, a graduate or a post-graduate student with these two courses (both or any one of them) have the key to work in the following industries:

  1. Film Industry i.e. Production houses, as Indie Independent) films
  2. Television Industry, i.e. TV channels, TV production houses
  3. Advertisement Agencies
  4. OTTs
  5. Newspaper Agencies
  6. Social Networks
  7. PR Agencies
  8. Colleges and Universities
  9. All Business Processing Outsource (BPO) companies and Knowledge Processing Outsource companies (KPO)
  10. Online Course Creation companies


It should always be borne in mind that someone who chooses MA in Film and Television or B.Sc in Media Technology can easily fathom the depths of cultural representations including cinema, television, literature and other arts with a little effort and self-persuasion. We believe that such a scholar or a film and TV expert that this programme will produce can venture on their own. From running their own online companies to being indie filmmakers, they can do whatever they want.

These two courses do not tell you what you have to do. Rather, these two courses empower you to dominate the world through your own key of creativity. It is often said that a course trains its students according to the industry need. However, we think a little further – these courses create students not according to the dictates of the industry (which is always changing), but creates such leaders who can mould the industry and the way industries work. These courses believe in the creative freedom of the individual, which will help them to get into, mould and lead any industry they want.

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