Career Opportunities in Applied Mathematics

“The Essence of Mathematics is not to make simple thing complicated, but to make Complicated thing Simple”— Stanley Gudder.  

Across the universe, there is one constant subject in the education system which is the queen of science: Mathematics. One of the most attractive & challenging subjects among the students is Mathematics. It is very much creative, logical & rewarding too. This subject has important connections with other disciplines in such a way that it grows the interest among the students to learn Mathematics. The innovative mathematical reasoning leads to new insights and applications in several disciplines. Thus getting a post graduate degree in Mathematics takes a student in another level where they can show their quality in complex problem solving both industry and academia. In general the tenure for getting a post graduate degree is of two years. Anyone can find different types of names for this master degree programme like Applied Mathematics, Mathematics, Pure Mathematics, Computational Mathematics etc. But the prime aim is always same which is to fill learners bag with full of knowledge and skill on all those aspects of Mathematics.    After completion post-graduate degree in Mathematics, student’s career graph may have several edges with attractive career opportunities.  

About M.Sc. in Applied Mathematics:  M.Sc. in Applied Mathematics program is two years post-graduate degree course which involves the advanced level mathematics. It involves the study of Algebra to Analysis; Mathematical Models to Operations Research; Statistics to Stochastic Process, Computer Programing to Data Structures; Machine Learning to Fuzzy Mathematics. 

Acquired Skills: 

  • Understanding abstract problems 
  • Constructing logical arguments 
  • Problem-solving 
  • Decision making  
  • Critical and analytical thinking 
  • Organize, analyze and interpret data 
  • Quantitative reasoning 

Compete for the National Level Exam: The papers offered in the MSc curriculum will enable students to compete in national level competitive examinations like NET / SET / GATE / CSIR/ JEST / DST / DRDO / ISRO / UPSC etc. 

Study after Post-graduate: Higher study is always a better option for Mathematicians.  The studies like M.Tech., M.Phil. or Ph.D. are preferable for a career in academia and industry.  

Career Prospects: 

An advance course like M.Sc. in Applied Mathematics opens the several opportunities for the students. From science & technology to business & healthcare, mathematics is relevant to all most all the institutes and industries which reflects that an accomplished mathematician has a wide range of career prospects.  

Generally, mathematics can lead us to two different career paths: academia or industry. There is always an opportunity for a mathematician in teaching and research job along with a wide range of scope in various industry-related jobs in statistics, engineering, computer science, physical science, insurance, economics and banking.

Jobs directly related to the degree include: 

  • Teacher: Government as well as private schools offer good jobs for mathematics graduates and post graduates as a mathematics teacher. After completing Ph.D. one can apply for an assistant professor job in various colleges/universities.  
  • Research scientist:  Mathematicians can apply for research-related jobs at good remuneration and package in Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), National Aeronautic Limited (NAL) and Society for Electronic Transaction and Security (SETS). 
  • Actuarial analyst: Actuaries are an essential part of Insurance industries for optimizing policies to minimize the risk.Mathematical and statistical modeling has been used to predict the financial position of an organization which helps a lot to the actuarial analyst.  
  • Data analyst: In order to solve complex problems in business and other areas, data analyst uses mathematical and statistical analysis to make strategic, logical data-driven decision. Statistical tools have been used to interpret data sets with predictive decision-making modeling.  
  • Operational Researcher: To improve the operations of any organization or to run any organization smoothly operational researchers used their mathematical skills.   
  • Cryptographer: Cryptography is an application of an important subject number theory. MSc program offers the course. Intelligence agencies hire cryptographers for encoding & decoding sensible data to keep it safe from malicious hackers.  Post-graduate students can pursue this as their career. 
  • Administrative job in Govt. sector:  Nowadays, in most of the universities offered professional studies course along with the regular core papers. It will prepare the students in soft skills so that he/she will be able to understand the intricacies of preparing for higher level examinations e.g. IAS, IPS, WBCS & other govt. jobs. After completion of post graduate degree in Mathematics students can appear for GATE exam. If a student can able to crack GATE exam, then he/she can apply in all PSU companies such as HAL, ONGC, IOC etc. 

Conclusion: 

The post-graduation degree in Mathematics provides students marketable attractive skills for various aspects of life and in the current situation, the demand for mathematicians has grown exponentially. According to the American Mathematical Society, the job market for mathematicians is predicted to rise by a whopping 30% in this coming decade. In fact, mathematicians have bright career among the most promising career paths based on their income levels, growth outlook, and low-stress work environments. So, in the present socio-economic scenario, the program may turn out to be a valuable asset to the students.

M.Sc. in Geoinformatics – A future of Geographers

History of Geoinformatics:  

The field of geographic information systems (GIS) started in the 1960s as a concept of quantitative and computational geography, whereas the history of remote sensing began with photography. Since the 1960s, with the development of radar, sonar, and thermal infrared detection systems, the science of remote sensing has evolved. Within the last five decades, geoinformatics has evolved from a concept to a science. Today, geoinformatics has become a platform for sharing and collaboration. Geo-information science helps us to create spatial maps to understand and solve real-world problems.   

What if Geoinformatics? 

Geoinformatics is the “art, science or technology dealing with the acquisition, storage, processing production, presentation and dissemination of geo-information” (Ehlers, 2008). Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System are the two branches of geo-information science. Remote sensing techniques are widely used to obtain information about an object from distance. Earth observation satellites play a vital to gather information about the earth’s surface and its atmosphere. To store, check, display and interpret the remotely sensed data and any type of spatial data, the Geographic information system (GIS) is used. With these two dynamic components, geo-information tries to address complex social and environmental challenges through data analysis.  

Geoinformatics as a Subject:   

Geoinformatics is a multidisciplinary subject. It includes the knowledge of Physics, Mathematics, Geography, Geology, engineering, and technology etc. The main object of the subject is to geo visualize the spatial information to solve social, economic and environmental problems. The applications of geoinformatics include 

  • Telecommunications 
  • National Security 
  • Disaster risk management 
  • Climate change study 
  • Weather forecasting  
  • Biodiversity conservation 
  • Environmental monitoring  
  • Marine and coastal studies 
  • Hydrology and Water resource management 
  • Land use land cover change studies  
  • Agriculture and Forestry 
  • Urban and rural planning 
  • Transport planning and Traffic management 
  • Geological and Geomorphological Studies 
  • Social and Economic studies and many more 

M.Sc. in Geoinformatics Program:  

M.Sc. Geoinformatics is a two-year postgraduate program designed for students who want to excel in the field of geospatial science. The program plays an important role to prepare more trained spatial data analysts for the future. The best-suited students for the course are welcome from backgrounds of geography, geology, environmental science, agriculture, forestry, physics, computer science, engineering etc. The course provides theoretical knowledge of geospatial science, as well as hands-on training related to the field of Geoinformatics. On completion of the course, students will be able to: 

  • Understand the basic concept, methods, and techniques related to geoinformatics  
  • Identify and analyze any geospatial problems 
  • Apply knowledge of geoinformatics to solve geospatial problems 
  • Use and design geospatial models  
  • Process geospatial data 
  • Carry out research work using geospatial data 

Career Prospects: 

After the successful completion of the course, a student will be eligible to find lucrative job opportunities as GIS Analyst, GIS Expert, GIS Developer, GIS Professional, GIS Technician, GIS Programmer, Geo-Spatial Software Engineer, Disaster preparedness planners, Remote sensing analysts, Water conservation planner, Urban planner, Transportation planner, Landscape architecture, Public health analysts, Data scientists or Big data analysts etc. There is an increasing demand for GIS experts in urban and environmental planning companies of both government and private type. One can also opt for jobs in GIS firms that include diverse skill-based jobs in the field of marketing, development, and testing. One can establish a GIS Consultancy Firm and may work individually and as an entrepreneur. Students can find placement in the areas such as Space Application, Military, Disaster Mitigation Agencies, Aviation Industry, Automobile Industry Government Organizations, Non-Government Institutions, Planning commissions, Research Labs etc. After acquiring higher degrees, one can also opt for teaching jobs in colleges or universities. 

Geoinformatics at Adamas University 

Key Features of the M.Sc. Geoinformatics Programme at Adamas University are as follows:  

  • Curriculum developed in line with the growing market demand of Geoinformatics 
  • Use advanced tools of geospatial technologies with well-equipped programming and geoinformatics lab and enhance your skills in displaying, analyzing, and visualizing complex spatial data.  
  • Use advanced statistical knowledge with R, Python, and MatLab to solve various environmental, socioeconomic, cultural and resource-chain-based problems of the real world.  
  • The intersection of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Geographical Information System for to solve real-world problems.  
  • Enhancement of research skills, particularly in the conceptualization, designing, and implementation of research projects in specified domain of knowledge.  
  • Develop practical skills and learn to unwrap real-world problems with minor and major project-based learning with the help of a designated mentor on a specific specialization field.  
  • Internship in reputed National institutions including but not limited to IIRS-ISRO, NATMO, IMD, Opsis Pvt. Ltd., etc. 
  • Student exchange program for those who want to peruse their career in abroad.  

For further details and enquiry, you can visit the official website of the Department of Geography, Adamas University (https://science.adamasuniversity.ac.in/geography/ ) or follow us on Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/Department-of-Geography-Adamas-University-167269360748113/). You can also read blogs on various topics of Geoinformatics and Geography here – https://adamasuniversity.ac.in/category/gis/https://adamasuniversity.ac.in/category/geography/  

 

Be the superhero and save the world with M.Sc. in Environmental Science

Introduction to the course 

The Merriam-Webstar defines a superhero (‘hero’ as a gender-neutral term) as a fictional hero having extraordinary or superhuman powers, or an exceptionally skilful or successful person. In simpler terms, an adroit, dexterous person who has dedicated her/his life for betterment of humanity or the biosphere as a whole. In real life, an environmental scientist fits the bill. Changing the world for the better, is the objective of an environmentalist working in any of the several interdisciplinary domains like pollution control expert, ecologist, climate change consultant or environmental toxicologist. Saving the world from a man-made environmental catastrophe or an apocalypse is the ‘job-profile’ of an expert in these subjects. Only a holistic education of environment will let you understand the importance of this subject which is even more relevant in today’s world of acute crisis, which will go down in the history of mankind as a catastrophe triggered by disrespect of human towards nature. 

The M.Sc. in Environmental Science programme will be offered by the School of Basic and Applied Sciences (SOBAS), Adamas University. The programme is designed to develop future professionals with profound and inveterate scientific consciousness willing to look for meaningful, impactful and responsible careers. Being a multidisciplinary subject, skill development in the form of capacity building of students in several facets of various scientific disciplines is the primary objective of the course. An ever-increasing consciousness of the human race regarding the environment and the ecosystem services will lead to the demand for experts with scientific dexterity in almost all related domains. The programme is structured in such a sagacious manner that the society as a whole will gain from the contributions of the alumni of this department. 

How is M.Sc. in Environmental Science Course Beneficial? 

  • Quantitative reasoning and/or mathematical skills or statistical models to study environmental phenomena. 
  • Use geospatial technologies to address environmental problems. 
  • Awareness of ecosystems in the context of human-environmental interactions. 
  • Competently implement a project, which may include literature review, experimental design, data collection, data analysis, and reporting. 
  • Students will understand key concepts in the life and physical sciences and will apply them to environmental issues.  
  • Students will be able to locate, evaluate and synthesize information from the scientific literature.  
  • Students will analyse data using appropriate statistical methods and will be able to evaluate the use of statistics by others in a variety of contexts.  
  • Students will apply knowledge of the sciences within an interdisciplinary context in solving environmental issues such as environmental health, food and agriculture, energy, waste and pollution, climate change, population, resource management, and loss of biodiversity.  
  • Students will carry out an applied research project in the natural sciences.  
  • Students will be able to communicate science effectively through written work and oral presentations to a variety of audiences.  
  • Students will apply the tools commonly used in field research, particularly in the study of plants, animals, and soils and will find their way on the landscape using map, compass and GPS technology, and use spatial analysis software such as GIS, Google Earth, and Google Maps. 

Relevance 

  1. Environmental Science is an inter-disciplinary subject and its components along with their interactions through assiduous study of Ecology, Biodiversity, Environmental Chemistry, and Environmental Microbiology
  2. Understand the different kinds of pollutions and their sources through study of Climate and Air Pollution Studies, Hazardous Waste & Environmental Toxicology and Soil Pollution and different laws about pollution.
  3. Analyse and determine pollution using Environmental Analytical Techniques, Biostatistics and Computational Techniques.
  4. Understand different technologies like biotechnology, water and wastewater treatment technology to find the solutions and their applications in abatement of Pollution and other environmental problems.
  5. Use of different tools for the management of Environment, Energy resources, solid wastes, Biodiversity conservation like Remote Sensing & Geographical Information Systems and different methodologies.
  6. Understand the basic principles of disaster management and industrial safety.
  7. Determine the environmental impact due to different developmental projects and find solution to eliminate these impacts.
  8. Through Dissertation, student can identify a particular environmental problem, review the literature for finding the gaps, develop research methodology, collect data and carry out data analysis and interpretation. 
  9. Students will also acquire the ability to write the research findings in the form of structured thesis and communicate the research results through oral or poster presentations.

What are the learning outcomes?

  1. To sensitize students towards environmental issues, and impacts of various anthropogenic activities on global climate and related mitigation strategies. 
  2. To provide practical training on modern instrumentation and analytical techniques for environmental analyses. 
  3. To enable the students for practical application of their knowledge and prepare them for successful and meaningful careers in research and academics, industries, environmental consultancies and NGOs. 
  4. To encourage innovation that is exposure driven, since the dynamics of environmental science ranges from nature study in a locality to climatic and global meteorological issues. 
  5. This course will enable the students to get exposed to the real-world situations through nature trails and studies, excursions, industry visits, sophisticated research laboratory visits, rural outreach, socio-economic surveys and many more. 

Academic and scholarly activity 

The primary objective of the inception of this new course is to initiate a course with a broader perspective having an academic as well as professional outlook. Didactic pedagogy will be implemented to suit the individual needs of all students. Skill development in the form of capacity building of the students vis a vis problem solving, critical thinking, communication, and entrepreneurial abilities will be put into effect. Various elements of the course structure will be aligned in such a manner to accommodate customized educational plans. Flexibility and continuous mentoring will be provided focusing on development of knowledge, skills, personalities, and most importantly outlook that will enable them to achieve the intended outcomes of the course. 

Faculty members will ideally get involved in high quality research activities, through which the students will have a paradigm shift in their approach towards the various disciplines. This will result in widening of their peripheral vision which is a pre-requisite for such a dynamic and socially relevant subject. Since successful in hand training promotes a successful career, arduous effort in setting up laboratory facilities is necessary. Establishing a state of the art laboratory which will support multidisciplinary research and analytical infrastructure will be one of the major focal points. In due course of time, if the laboratory gets required accreditation (NABL), it can act as an avenue for revenue earning through analysis and consultancy. The students in the process, will have access to several real-life environmental problem-solving exercises. 

Since all learners cannot learn in the same way and in the same pace, appropriate opportunities will be provided, in as much personalised manner as possible. 

Outcomes including knowledge, skills and attitudes will be evaluated through examinations, tutorials, assignments, Project work, Labs, Presentations, continuous and comprehensive assessments.  

Compulsory credit points is associated with the summer training included in the curriculum. Students will visit industries dealing with pollution abatement or where environmental management is a critical issue. Students may also visit institutes or laboratories of national and international repute. In either of the cases, the trainee students will experience first-hand knowledge which will enhance their employability. 

Career opportunities 

R&D/Industry based domains 

  • Pollution analyst 
  • Environmental remediation 
  • Green chemist 
  • Agricultural Science 
  • Bioinformatics 
  • Climatologist/Meteorologist 
  • Ecologist/Conservation biologist 
  • Environmental geoscientist/GIS specialist 
  • Hydrologist 
  • Marine Biologist/Oceanographer 
  • Microbiologist 
  • Molecular Biologist 
  • Toxicologist 

Job opportunities in other sectors 

  • Environmental Impact Assessment 
  • Air/Water Quality 
  • Waste Management/Contaminant cleanup 
  • Chemical safety 
  • Water resources 
  • Public health and hygiene 
  • Mineral resources 
  • Forest resources 
  • Ecologists in Govt. agencies 
  • National Green Tribunal 
  • Public health agencies 
  • State and Indian Forest Services 
  • Environmental Journalism 

Career guidance will also be provided on behalf of the department as a continuous and keystone support system for the students. After successful completion of their PG course the students will find themselves ready to get employed in disciplines of their choice and interest.  

Through a competitive learning atmosphere, students will be provided with special academic modules for NET and GATE examinations. Another important highlight of this course will be in the domain of other professional and competitive examinations. Syllabus has been planned so as to prepare the students for higher education which includes research and academics, as well as orient them for Civil service and other competitive and professional examinations. 

A subject not bound by any state or country or continent. The earth needs young bright enthusiastic students like you. The magnitude of the anthropogenic damage that needs to be undone, and the importance of conservation and preservation of natural assets are so important, for our bare survival, requirement of environmentalists will never wane away. Students from Adamas University with have received academic exposure to institutes and universities of global and national repute in various disciplines. Adamas University is among the very few Universities offering the courses on Environmental Science, where each of the disciplines of this transdisciplinary course will be addressed by the experts. This intense nurturing will be unique, so that pursuing career opportunities abroad shall be facilitated.  

For further details and enquiry, you can visit the official website of, Adamas University (https://science.adamasuniversity.ac.in/environmental-science) 

Master of Commerce- Unique Aspects

Commerce education is a well-respected career option since long. The day to day expansion of trade and commerce world is responsible to make this study more relevant and sought after. The new age commerce education is also constantly fine tuning itself in line with the ongoing changes happening in the trade and business world.  

Adamas University is a destination for excellence having World Class educational infrastructure including Canvas as the Learning Management System. Already it has achieved a proven track record with iconic presence in online education. Even during the most difficult time of Pandemic, the normal education was neither disrupted for a single day nor the examination process got delayed. It provides some unique advantages including Integrated career focused value added courses, Career Development Cell (CDC) for Training and Placement, Industry visits, Internships, Filed Research and Live Projects, Frequent Conferences, Seminars, Workshops and Guest Lecture series. Powered by more than 250 faculty members (out of which more than 160 are Doctorate), it is absolutely ready to move towards the new world of excellence as envisaged by the National Education Policy, 2020.  

The Department of Commerce is one specialised wing of the School of Business & Economics (SOBE) which offers commerce education in both undergraduate and postgraduate level. The undergraduate degrees of commerce leads to multiple avenues to pursue different higher studies including Professional Accountant, Management Accountant, Tax Consultant, Marketing Professional, Investment Advisor and many more. The postgraduate degree not only grooms the student with masterly skills in the area of Accountancy, Management Accountancy and Finance but also sets them towards a teaching and research career in the domain of Commerce. 

M. Com is one postgraduate degree programme offered by the department for the 2021 session. The key features are highlighted below. 

Programme Name 

M. Com. 

Duration 

2 years (4 Semesters) 

Degree level 

Master 

Special focus 

Accounting and Finance 

Eligibility  

B. Com. (Honours) from any recognised university with at least 50% marks 

Selection process 

Adamas University Admission Test (AUAT) and Personal Interview 

Conduction type 

Semester 

Examination type 

Semester 

Value Added Courses 

Advanced Excel, SPSS 

Career direction 

Jobs in the area of Accounting and Finance, Teaching and Research 

Placement Support 

Yes 

It is our deepest pleasure to invite all the young aspirants to be a part of the journey towards excellence. 

Impact of Covid-19 on Commerce

The global pandemic has disruptive impact on every aspect of the society; not only health, psychology or business but also having access to the basic amenities to survive. While we are still in the middle of the Covid-19 pandemic, massacre can be witnessed in the form of death tolls, lockdowns, closure of business, rising unemployment and poverty. Different measures are being taken by the government as well the society in general in order to dampen the impact of the catastrophic virus on the society. The business and commerce are facing unprecedented turmoil and challenges in the following context: 

  • Supply chain management 
  • Health and safety measures 
  • Flow of cash or cash equivalents 
  • Change in the pattern of demand and consumer preferences 
  • Marketing strategies 
  • Sales management 
  • Human resource management 

Industries pertaining to tourism and hospitality are fading away. Even thoughpost the first wave of pandemic there have travel movements; the industry got another huge blow with the advent of the second wave and so are the other already affected industries and sectors of the economy. On the other hand, there has been exceptional surge in the business pertaining to online entertainment, online shopping, online communication and other digitally driven sectors. The economy is heading towards long term goals that ensures sustainability and not just wealth maximization. The companies are restating their mission statements by taking into consideration environmental and societal factors. That the entire stakeholder circle should be given equal importance while defining the practices to serve them as well as keeping a holistic outlook while framing long-term commitments. The companies need to prepare themselves for more expenditure towards the human resource working there (both salary as well as wage earners) because of the additional requirements of social welfare measures with the burgeoning health and sustainability crisis.   

The financial institutions have revised the growth forecast of India to an exceptionally low levels that hasn’t been seen since the global 2008 financial crisis. The extraordinary slump in the economy has compelled the authorities to adopt not only forward guidance but also a range of several innovative unconventional monetary policy tools.Needless to say, adoption of accommodative policy stances and falling repo rates are not panacea for overcoming all the maladies the economy is going through with the burgeoning crisis brought in the world economy by the pandemic which is a hard blow for the already decelerated Indian economy. Forward guidance however serves as a powerful tool because the policy stances and rates serve as important signalling factors in the economy.From the perspectives of accounting and auditing, the financial statement reporting need to account for the catastrophic impact of Covid-19 by adjusting the expected cash flow stream, modifying the provisions as per the situation and considering the fact that there will be delay in the payments from the debtors as well as in the payments to be made to the creditors. The loan-loss provisioning for the financial institutions will be readjusted as the present scenario affects the financial health of the bank customers. Also, the lockdowns lead to closure of factories and offices and thereby the physical life of the fixed assets like plant and machinery, office equipment, etc. needs to be revalued because rate of depreciation might vary. ICAI has advised writing down of the inventories to net realizable value because of the supply chain management disruption, plummeting selling price and obsolescence. The auditors will face additional challenges due to social distancing measures and thereby inability to visit the place of business of the client and conducting stock audit and cash audit at the present situation will be a difficult job. 

The pandemic situation is a black swan event which has completely disrupted the status quo in not only in a particular economy but worldwide. This calls for new policy, new structure,a novel set of regulations and management. Not only the framing of something novel, but also the present status of the different aspects can be looked into in order to get an idea how different sectors of the society are putting their act together in this pandemic. As a consequence, diverse research areas have bloomed in all areas amidst the Covid-19 outbreak; of which the ones in the domain of commerce can be summarized by the following points. 

  • Effect of the pandemic on consumer behaviour and consumption in the context of restricted mobility, changing social structure, technological advancements and rising middlemen (both authorized as well as unauthorized). The researcher can look into the behavioural aspect through survey and experimentation and try to figure out whether there is any visible change. If there is any, then whether such change is temporary and the old habits will return or the change is persistent. This may help the concerns change their policies, product and marketing strategies. 
  • Measures to improve the well-being of the human resource amidst the pandemic in the context of the work place hygiene and sanitation, extending assistance to their family in the form of sponsoring the rising cost of digital education of their child, medical emergency, etc. Research can be conducted to look on to the conditions of the employees, laborers; to look on to the hire & fire policy of the concern; to join the dots between the rising unemployment and the lacuna of HR policies and thereby put forward effective labour policies. 
  • The impact of the pandemic also extends to the corporate social responsibility because a lot of opportunity has opened for the companies to engage with their CSR strategies. The researchers can look into the practices of the company and put forward the true picture in front of the greater audience as well as provide suggestions. 
  • There are increasing scope of research in identifying the strategies that should be undertaken by the most vulnerable business sectors like SMEs as well as the start-ups. Because of their instability and uncertainty in the flow of cash, these sectors face massive disruptions to keep their business ongoing. Studies can be conducted to find out innovative ways of generation of funds for the concern, management of such funds, taking advantage of the increasing support from the government bodies and so on. 
  • Research pertaining to optimisation models are of burgeoning demand in the areas of supply chain management, healthcare and finance. Optimisation models in finance specifically is demanded by the fund management concerns, financial service providers in order to maximize return and minimize risk. 

The above areas are indicative and not all inclusive. This is because there is no end point in the research tunnel and the researcher needs to dig deep to find out the relevant gaps and conduct scientific investigation of the same. The impact of the pandemic has hard hit every sector of the economy and every individual is adapting with this changing lifestyle. The companies are reframing their policies, government is coming up with schemes tailored to deal with this pandemic, financial institutions are extending possible financial support to their clients; basically economy as a whole is being redesigned and restructured.  

Impact of COVID in Management Practices, New Trends & Areas of Research

Introduction 

Tectonic shifts in society and business occur when unexpected events force widespread experimentation around a new idea or problem. During World War II, for instance, when American men went off to war, women proved that they could do “men’s” work and do it well. Women never looked back after that. Similarly, the Y2K problem demanded the extensive use of Indian software engineers, leading to the tripling of employment-based visas granted by the U.S. Fixing that bug enabled Indian engineers to establish their credentials, and positioned them as world leaders in addressing technology problems. Alphabet, Microsoft, Google, IBM, and Adobe are all headed by India-born engineers today. Similarly, The Covid-19 pandemic has been labeled as a black swan event that caused a ripple effect on every aspect of human life. Therefore, Covid-19 will be the catalyst of several long and short-term policy changes that require theoretical and empirical attention of researchers. 

The Corona virus disease is a human, social and economic crisis that has attacked the core of human existence. The pandemic has affected all segments of the population, especially vulnerable groups such as the elderly person, working age, medical professionals, public servants and poor people of the society. In response to the pandemic outbreak, the government of many countries decided to save lives before saving the economy, declaring sudden or phased lockdowns in their countries. Policies like “social distancing” and “stay-at-home” were implemented overnight, which severely damaged many businesses across the world.  

According to the World Trade Organization (WTO,2020), global trade was already experiencing a downturn in 2019, and then the pandemic further precipitated a global financial crisis. Initial estimates have predicted that major economies will lose around 2.4 to 3.0 percent of their gross domestic product (GDP) during 2020 due to the Covid-19 pandemic (WTO,2020). It has become extremely challenging for several businesses across the world to keep their businesses going, given reduced sales and the high level of uncertainty. It is therefore, utmost important for businesses to conduct genuine assessment and feasibility study of their business models. Covid-19 has also pushed businesses across the world to rapidly operate in newer and more resilient ways. As companies change their priorities in response to previous challenges like real-time decision-making, productivity of people, business growth, and security risks; newer challenges introduced by the pandemic are testing businesses’ resilience as they attempt to lay a foundation for the future. 

Impact of Covid-19 in Management Practices 

The Covid-19 spread across the world has heightened uncertainty regarding consumption and investment among different stakeholders, like consumers, trade partners, suppliers, and investors. Increasing the duration of the lockdown and travel restrictions in several parts of the world are severely affecting the general economy. The Covid-19 crisis is generating spillover effects throughout global and regional supply chains, disrupting demand and supply. In Addition to that social distancing policies have almost destroyed service industries, like travel and tourism and hospitality, which could further trigger a recession. The lockdown has also increased the risks associated with investments by households and businesses. Many companies are either facing bankruptcy or reducing their production capacity, which has led to higher unemployment and job cuts. A prolonged lockdown period also increases the risk of massive increase in corporate and governmental debts, leading to basic financial crisis that could prolong the recovery period from the Covid-19 crisis.  

During the Covid-19 crisis, management of the company are working faster to ensure a competitive advantage. In order to solve emerging problems, firms are embracing management practices and processes that are responsive rather than reactive to the crisis, and they are switching to new operating models focused on the customer and supported by the appropriate governance. They are faster to decide where to invest and reallocate their resources. Additionally, management of the firms are pushed to create new product and services and radically adapt to emerging situation in order to remain visible, agile, and productive in the business. 

New Trends 

Digital innovations quickly became the defence for personal and professional life against covid-19 pandemic. Connected digital devices enable both remote work and online education. Additionally, chat bots are providing instant life-saving information, partially relieving overwhelmed health systems. Further, geolocation information systems are helping health workers and researchers to track and map the spread of the virus. Firms and governments are designing and piloting fast, responsive frameworks to implement emerging technologies, like data policy, digital trade, IoT, AI, drones, autonomous vehicles, block chain, telemedicine, and environmental innovations to cope up with the situation. 

The big data and advanced analytics are helping to detect surface indicators related to the pandemic. Specifically, real-time big-data-driven insights have helped management practitioners, policymakers and researchers to comprehend and forecast the reach and impact of Covid-19 outbreak. Real-time Covid-19 trackers are helping epidemiologists, scientists, health workers, and policy-makers make more informed decisions to fight the pandemic by aggregating and synthesizing incident derived from big data. Further, real-time analysis of GPS data, such as Aryogya Setu Apps in India, indicating people’s movement within a certain locality is helping the government understand the peoples compliance with social distancing norms and altering people existence of nearby Covid patients. Big data analytics are also helping many corporate executives to make difficult decisions that affect staff, customers, and operational capacity. For example, firms are leveraging their internal and external data e.g., customers’ contact history, employees’ data, business operations monitoring, and social media to understand different scenarios for sustainable development during and after the Covid-19 pandemic. 

The public health emergency of Covid-19 confronting world healthcare systems has prompted the development of digital health solutions to mitigate the impact of the pandemic. These digital healthcare systems include tele-health, robust surveillance systems, technology-driven diagnostic and clinical decision-making tools; wearable tracking devices to measure physiological parameters such as temperature, heart rate, saturation level, and sleep-duration; and interactive chat services providing information about Covid-19. Telemedicine administered through virtual chat bots and web bots is emerging as a viable option for communication and safe medical care. Digital healthcare solutions are helping to detect, report, and provide surveillance and rapid response for Covid-19 cases. Further, they are helping with the creation of geospatial dashboards that display pertinent information at the national and international scales to track Covid-19 statistics in real time. 

 Research Areas 

The impact of Covid-19 on business and management is continuously attracting researchers, who are bringing new perspectives on research. Although, the diversity of research areas is increasing, a few broad core research topics are emerging more significantly. These core topics include the impacts of Covid-19 on the economy, value chain, innovation, service industry, employment, management challenges and practices. 

As the Covid-19 crisis continues to impact businesses in the next few years, economic, social, and technological changes will become inevitable for survival. There are several theoretical, conceptual, and empirical research opportunities to understand the development of a new paradigm and advancement of existing theories within the business domain due to the disruption caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. Additional empirical research opportunities have been created by the emergence of a body of knowledge regarding Covid-19 and subsequent modifications to this knowledge.  

Pendanomics: Revising Economics in Time of Covid 19 Pandemic

With the advent of this global pandemic (COVID-19), the governments, economists, industrialists and individuals have been forced to rethink in terms of sustained resolutions, for bear survival in many cases, forget about long run. This gives us an impression that the quote “in the long run we all are dead” was apparently thoughtful, as laid by Keynes. Amidst, a colossal question forward-facing with all stakeholders is that, will the economics and the understanding of economics in resolving issues in public welfare is going to remain the same in near future or not? We have already witnessed a sharp fall in growth globally and enormous thinking is constantly taking place in terms of recovery, V- shaped, U-shaped, W-shaped, L-shaped and many more. Perhaps, till date we are looking for a convincing answer that how possibly this global recession can be fought. To find such an answer we need to think about the economics under the circumstances of epidemics and pandemics.  

Thinking on governments, an eye opening discussion is made in(Wyplosz, 2020) where he describes the fatal faces of government by taking several examples including autocratic and secretive regime of China and Iran, the early denial from USA, a late reaction from Italy and South Korea, blaming the trade unions by France, the elitism in Japan and catastrophes caused in low income countries such as Kazakhstan and Côte d’Ivoire. India in this sense has not been an exception. The second wave after the mutated version (s) of the virus has put many question not only the adequacy and preparedness of the government at centre and state level, perhaps the will to contest with the issues at the grass root level. This is worrisome indeed. What economics can resolve in the sheer lack of willingness of the governments just to protect their own face at the cost of society and its members?  

Nevertheless, the rays of hope cannot and should not be left. What economics can do is beautifully summarized by Pigou, as he mentions that “Economics is what economists do”. Therefore, we shall focus more on what economists can do under these circumstances so that the faith in economics is not vanquished. A Pandora of thoughts has opened up among the researchers in fields of finance, baking, fiscal and monetary policies and sectoral priorities. For instance (Mauro, 2020) argues that macroeconomic mismanagement by the governments in the times of pandemic can cause a threat to the fundamental idea of globalisation. In fact, the Trump’s thought of de-globalisation had started flourishing in his early commencement, and that had led to an increase in confidence of the economy, the “animal spirit” as quoted in economic terminology stared improving. Along with this, the new age researches are building up arguments over the “globalisation of diseases”, and the threat that these bio-wars are creating to the world economies. It was aptly described by Bill Gates in 2015 that the wars in future will not be fought by nuclear weapons, instead the pandemics like theSpanish flue will be the major source of destructing national economies globally. And thereby a serious area of research has emerged today that how this so called “globalisation of diseases” is influential in breaking down the global economic chains and how one has to deal with this.  

Another aspect is the large disruptions that are caused and likely to be continued in coming times on the international trade patterns globally. This pandemic in different from the pandemics that have occurred in the past in many aspects. For instance, in economics terms it has hit most severely the nations that control over 55% of the word supply and demand, about 60% of world manufacturing and about 50% of world manufacturing exports (Baldwin & Toumiura, 2020). One of the striking fact that (Baldwin & Toumiura, 2020) lay down is the “permanent damage”to the trade systems due to the ongoing trade war between US and China and the reactions of firms along with loose national polices to overcome the loss of productivity, employments and income. They argue that the global supply chains can break to an extent that cannot be restored since these supply chains are highly internationalised. This leads to a combination of supply shock that is clubbed with demand shock as the income and consumption at the global level is expected to fall sharply due to reduction in marginal propensity to consume and fall in incomes. The traditional economic thinking that is applied to mitigate the supply and demand shocks therefore is of minimal use in this scenario. The economic theories themselves need to be revisited and permanent solutions need to be thought off. There is huge scope of research in this aspect in coming times.  

The global financial system is also part and parcel of the trading system. The breakdown of the global financial system may cause the malfunctioningof financial supply chains globally. (Beck, 2020) for example, lays down that what could happen to the global financial system due to extended pandemic situation, poor monetary mismanagement and regulatory reactions for banking fragility. The adverse solvencies in these times globally are the major concerns, and in case of India where the NPA’s are already very high this could lead to collapse of many banks that are fragile. Moreover, as (Beck, 2020) argues that panic and spill overs are rather powerful in spreading the negative and therefore it becomes outmost responsibility of governments to react in an appropriate manner to mitigate the effects. A well thought monetary stance with an improved regulatory management is becoming need of the hour for the national economies globally with the hit of this pandemic.  

In summary, we can see that the scholars in the domain of economics are being challenged by these times. Challenges brings opportunities of many sought. It is up to us that how we convert these challenges into constructive opportunities via innovative thoughts and extended research. Economics being at the heart of Business and Finance makes it more lucrative for the scholars to think loudly and correlate with problem areas, some of those being discussed above. The role of educational institutions, Universities, research bodies and government institutions is far more determinable in this context. The way forward in terms of extending the body of knowledge seems of the bright even with the presence of the darkest time that global economies have ever seen in the history. 

References  

Baldwin, R., & Toumiura, E. (2020). Thinking ahead about the trade impact of Covid 19. In R. Baldwin, & B. W. Mauro, Economics in the times of covid 19 (pp. 59-70). London: CEPR. 

Beck, T. (2020). Finance in the time of coronavirus. In R. Baldwin, & B. W. Mauro, Economics in the time of Covid 19 (pp. 73-76). London: CEPR. 

Mauro, B. W. (2020). Macroeconomics of the flue. In R. Baldwin, & B. W. Mauro, Economics in the times of Covid-19 (pp. 31-35). London: CEPR. 

Wyplosz, C. (2020). The Good Things About Coronavirus. In R. Baldwin, & B. W. Mauro, Economics in times of Covid 19 (pp. 113-115). London: CEPR 

Why pursue BA degree in Bengali from Adamas?

Literature is one of the most interesting and significant expressions of humanity. It is a subject which has an ability to transform and contribute to the overall development of an individual as well as the society. Literature is both intensely personal as well as a communal experience. Humanity is a complicated thing and requires an infinite amount of words to describe and analyze. That is the joy of studying literature. The theory thought alongside literature, in combination with analysis gives a student a power of perspective which is very essential for finding containment and peace in communication with different people in the society. Moreover, literature is journey of finding or knowing oneself, as it enables the student with the power of self-analysis and self-criticism, which is the most important factor of both career and character development. So, the discipline of Bengali literature enables to think and write creatively and critically. It explores many new ideas about life and society. The study of Bengali literature helps students to understand human Bengali and our society in its depth. 

A career in Bengali literature entails an undergraduate degree and a post graduate with specialization in some specific area, era and genres of Bengali literature like folklore and folk literature, Tagore literature, literature of Bangladesh, modern Bengali drama, medieval Bengali literature, etc. it also emphasizes on the stylistics and techniques used in Bengali literature, specializations in topics like Chanda and alankar, comparative literature helps in the better understanding of the subject. 

The subject literature is quite dependent on it’s a language for its expression and development, and thus not only literature this course also projects emphasis on the language development by providing Bengali linguistics and grammar as an elective. In order to expertise students in communication and cultural understanding, this course explores literature through film and cultural studies, which is also an elective course. Other elective course includes the genres of short stories and novel which are very important in the graduation level. Moreover, literature provides an insight into the past, present and future of a human civilization and development. 

Why study BA (Honours) in Bengali at Adamas University? 

The Department of Bengali in Adamas University offers a unique experience to the students taken admission in BA program. The program is designed in such a way so as to provide a wholesome knowledge about the subject and its’ application to the students. This program is a 3-year program with six semesters. The program requires the completion of a number of core courses in Bengali, elective courses (as chosen by the student), skill enhancement courses, discipline specific courses, value-added courses as well as specializations. Moreover, to enhance students’ understanding of the applications and to hone their research skills, the curriculum also entails completion of a clinical coursework, summer internship and a research dissertation. The Discipline of Bengali Literature enables to think and write creatively and critically. The course structure is developed in such a way that the academia is blended with applied writing and creative thinking. B.A in Bengali is a unique programme of interdisciplinary learning. Along with the core papers the department also organizes and encourages seminar presentations, practical exposure of research project, etc.  

7 Reasons why you should join Adamas University for pursuing BA Honours in Bengali: 

1. Specializations offered at the Undergraduate level

The Department of Bengali, Adamas University has proved to be a forerunner by introducing electives. We have introduced OBE system.  BA in Bengali Language and Literature is consists of 6 semesters. They have 14 core papers in total. In first 4 years they can take up 1 general elective paper from any other department in SOLACS. 3rd year students only study core papers and 2 discipline specific electives each semester. They also have to do either internship or projects. Department of English, Sociology and School of Science offers the common papers. These courses are meant to grow interests in various fields of literature and society. 

  • Electives: Bengali Short Stories and Novels, Bengali Linguistics and Grammar, Tagore Literature, Film & Culture Studies 
  • DSE: Shishu Sahitya, Katha Sahitya, Introduction to the Literature of Bangladesh, Folklore Studies, Madhyajug, Comparative Literature. 

Here are some of the electives: 

Specialization in Film and Culture Studies: This course consists of the language of camera, film theories, film watching and analysing, reviewing a film. Not only Bengali film but this course introduces to some of the legends of world cinema as well.  

Specialization in Comparative LiteratureLanguage is everywhere, so is literature. This course introduces to some of the richest literary works of the world and gives a sense of where are we standing now.  

Specialization in Madhyajug: Knowing our roots makes our future strong. This subject takes student back to the 13th century and introduces with various Bengali texts which shaped up the present of Bengali Literature. 

2. Syllabus with outcome-based education:  

The syllabus is equipped according to the need of the students, while providing importance to their career requirements as well. It helps them to gain intensive knowledge and prepare them for various competitive exams such as NET, SET, WBSC, IAS, SSC, etc. We have adopted the OBE method and take care of student outcomes with utmost care with slow and advanced learner policy. The teaching method includes both subjective and objective outlooks. These help them to read intensively and write creatively. The teaching method also includes audio visual classes for better understanding of the subject and concepts. Also, cultural and academic activities are carried out frequently to keep the students active and creative, which indirectly helps the students to enhance and gain depth in the subject of Bengali literature. 

3. Grooming for Research: 

The Department emphasizes on conducting research in different areas of research from the undergraduate level itself. Students are groomed to learn and apply their research skills by presenting research papers at various levels. This helps them to get the exposure to diverse sources of knowledge. Research programme includes critical thought process and focus on creating new theories by studying theoretically as well as by gaining practical, field work experience and knowledge. 

4. Internships in Bengali: 

Adamas university provides internship as a part of the curriculum through the placement cell, where students are encouraged to do internship from the undergraduate level in different media platforms, social work organizations, corporate companies, where the students can get a glimpse of the practical and professional field as well as get exposure for the development of various skills. 

5. Placement opportunities: 

The placement cell of Adamas university provides training to the students for placement and internship opportunities by conducting regular classes and training program. Students opting for a job in their final year are provided with placement opportunities. Apart from the facilities provided students can use the knowledge gained for career in academic areas or in news media and publishing house. They are also prepared for WBCS, IAS, SSC, NET, SET, etc. the course structure is designed in a way that covers the entire syllabus. Moreover, knowledge and expertise in the field of Bengali literature to explore their career in various spheres. The student can also opt for teaching career in colleges and universities after qualifying NET or SET. We have skill enhancement courses so that students can go out in the real world as professionals. Today a Bengali student can work in various fields such as publication house, media industry, translator, content writer etc. we take care of all the necessary steps to make them creative as well as eligible. 

6. Teachers as Mentors:  

The teacher-student relationship is healthy. We believe in interactive teaching and the overall development of all students. The Department believes in offering a friendly learning environment where students can acquire knowledge through scaffolding. Teachers play the role of mentors by providing all possible guidance and psychological support to the students across their entire program.  

7. Great Campus Life:  

The Adamas university campus is an eco-friendly, beautiful and green campus that connects the students with nature. It provides an active campus life where students get ample space to mingle with students and faculties of other departments, which help them to socialize and learn with different people. There are different clubs for co-curricular activities in order to enhance different talents. Clinics are there to provide care for physical fitness as well as psychological consultation for mental wellbeing.  

 

To know more about the program, check out: https://socialsciences.adamasuniversity.ac.in/Bengali/ 

Cloud Computing: A Beginner’s Insight to Top Use Cases

Cloud Computing is the on-demand availability of computing resources which include most commonly data storage, computing power, infrastructure etc. without direct active management by the user. It involves charging customers on a pay-as-you-use basis, thus offering a cost-effective technique of automating certain functions of an enterprise.

Now, what are the features of Cloud Computing? Some of the major features are enlisted below:

  1. Cost Reduction: As we don’t have to purchase hardware or software separately by ourselves, there is a great reduction in cost. We don’t have to think about up-gradation of software or its maintenance. These are taken care of by cloud service provider.
  2. 2. Device and location independence: These Cloud Computing Services cater to the needs of customers and are very user-friendly. We can access Cloud Computing Service from any device such as laptop, desktop, tablet PC and smartphone etc. Also, we can access the services from any part of the world. Only pre-requisites for accessing are our device and high-speed internet connection.
  3. On-demand self-service: We are allocated resources according to the demand of our project. We can create an instance at any time and it is a matter of few minutes to create and deploy an instance.
  4. Scalability: This is one of the most important features of Cloud Computing. The instances are scaled up when the resource requirements are more and scaled down when the resource requirements get fewer so that server cost can be reduced. This feature can be leveraged by start-ups as they start off with fewer resources and when they grow big, they can scale-up their resources easily.
  5. Resource Pooling: According to this feature, the resources are pooled together which can be used by multiple clients. It is done in order to maximize the benefit and minimize the risk.

From a beginner’s point of view, it might be an immediate question arising in mind that “What are the common use cases of Cloud Computing?”

Let us have a quick look on its top five use cases which will help you to gain clarity over the utility of Cloud Computing in an enterprise.

  1. Video Streaming Platforms: The streaming of videos in the OTT platforms has been possible due to the application of Cloud Computing. The viewers want to enjoy rich and smooth viewing experience over these platforms without any lag or delay. The cloud storage and data benefits can be leveraged over these streaming platforms. The demand of online viewing of videos is not always uniform. At some instances, it may go up and at other instances, it may go down. This is possible due to scaling up and scaling down feature of Cloud Computing applications. The data and bandwidth consumption thus can be controlled using this feature.
  2. Services for File Hosting: These type of services enable you to store your files online using cloud storage without wasting valuable memory space in your PC or laptop. There are a number of file hosting services such as DropBox, Microsoft OneDrive, IDrive etc. which offer these powerful features. Each of these services have their own pros and cons, but they are highly popular among users despite some of their drawbacks. These services offer third-party app integration for providing more features to their users.
  3. Cloud-based Chatbots: Cloud-based Chatbots are a category of essential tools which make communication smooth and hassle-free. The technologies which are applied for developing interactive chatbot are Cloud Computing, along with Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language Processing. These Chatbots are used for communication with customers to answer their queries regarding any service or product. The full process is automated and the result can be a simple text, a web page like Contact Us of the website or some audio to guide the customer. In this way, the company sales are increased and they can better handle the customer queries without engaging specialized manpower for the purpose.

In Cloud-based Chatbots, the resources are deployed in the cloud by the businesses. These resources are hosted on the premises of the service provider, so enterprises can use these resources independent of time and location.

  1. Disaster Recovery: Data is the most important asset of an enterprise. The enterprises need to arm themselves with strategies which help them to recover their data wealth in case of a disaster. The Disaster Recovery (DR) plan is highly crucial for an enterprise to save its revenue, reputation and asset. Cloud-based Disaster Recovery plans take into account the infrastructure, vulnerabilities, the order of their recovery and workable DR strategies. DR plan can be designed with the integration of Cloud Computing services which enables an enterprise to automate each step of the recovery process.
  2. Serverless Computing: It is a methodology or cloud computing execution model in which enterprises or consumers consume back-end services on a pay-as-you-use based strategy. The term is a little misleading, as there are still servers running in the back-end but the enterprises don’t have to worry about the underlying infrastructure. As the service is auto-scaling, an enterprise need not pay for a fixed amount of bandwidth or number of servers.

With all these use cases of Cloud Computing and many others, it gives an awareness among the beginners of Cloud Computing learners about its huge applications in the real world in recent times.

References:

  1. 5 PRACTICAL USE CASES OF CLOUD COMPUTING IN EVERYDAY LIFE, https://www.criticalcase.com/blog/5-practical-use-cases-of-cloud-computing-in-everyday-life.html
  2. Disaster Recovery In Cloud Computing: All You Need To Know, by Jessie Reed, https://www.nakivo.com/blog/disaster-recovery-in-cloud-computing/
  3. Serverless Computing, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serverless_computing
  4. 10 Important Characteristics of cloud computing, https://clouodo.com/characteristics-of-cloud-computing/

BLOCKCHAIN: A NEW CAREER LIMELIGHT

Any online transaction that consists of digital money is a piece of a challenge these days with the growing threats of hackers looking to steal bank info posted online. This leads to the invention of various kinds of crypto-currency money, Bitcoin is one of them. The generation behind the usage of Bitcoin is popularly referred to as BLOCKCHAIN.

Nowadays Blockchain has become a buzzword in both industry and academia. Blockchain is a constantly developing ledger that keeps a permanent document of all the transactions that have taken region in a relaxed, chronological, and immutable way. It is able to be used for the comfy transfer of cash, belongings, contracts, and so forth. Without requiring a 3rd- party intermediary such that a financial institution or government. Blockchain is a software protocol however it couldn’t be run without the net (like SMTP is for electronic mail).

It is a distributed database of information or in other words, it is a public ledger (files) of all transactions done in the online world. The Blockchain is innovation and a strategy that permits local area clients to approve, keep and synchronize the substance of an exchange record which is duplicated across numerous clients. 

In the academic field, blockchain technology is also attracting more and more attention. The study of blockchain can be divided into three categories. Firstly, study on the digital currency that is based on blockchain, including the decentralized and centralized digital currency [4]. Secondly, study on the application of blockchain technology in non-digital currency scenarios such as the application of blockchain in smart cities [5] and medical information security management [6, 7]. Thirdly, study underlying blockchain technology. More and more researchers realize that the blockchain can be stripped out from digital currency to create a revolutionary technical architecture in other areas. Some researchers have begun to study the underlying technologies such as the difficult control of mining [8], the scalability of consensus algorithms [9] and the smart contract [10].

Career options in Blockchain

Blockchain technology can be used in diverse sets of applications. Blockchain technology can be implemented for finding solutions for different domains, such as healthcare, voting, identity management, governance, supply chain, energy resources and so on.

When the internet first came along, we had no idea how it would forever change our lives. From smartphones and text messages to streaming movies and video conferences with loved ones, as well as for attending meetings or interviews, no one knew the ways the world would change with the invention of the Internet. We are currently in the early phases of blockchain and there is much potential yet to be unlocked. The below figure represents some of the application domains of the blockchain proposed by various experts.

                                           

Healthcare: Blockchain technology can be used for the traceability of drugs and patient data management. Drug counterfeiting is a major problem in the pharmaceutical industry. Reports from the Health Research Funding organization revealed that 10% to 30% of the drugs sold in developing countries involves counterfeit [11]. It is estimated by the WHO that 16% of counterfeit drugs have the wrong ingredients, while 17% contain an imprecise level of essential ingredients. Therefore, these drugs can put a patient’s life in danger as they will not treat the diseases, rather can trigger secondary effects that can lead to death. Blockchain can be a solution to address this issue because all the transactions added to the distributed ledger are immutable and digitally time-stamped, which makes it possible to track a product and make the information tamper-proof. Managing patient data integrity is one of the major concerns for the healthcare industry. Each patient has unique physical variability. Therefore a treatment strategy for a common disease varies depending upon circumstances. Hence, for providing personalized treatment, it is necessary to access the complete medical history of an individual patient. However, medical data are sensitive and requires a secured sharing platform. The existing system of bookkeeping medical records is lacking privacy as well as interoperability. Currently, blockchain can offer an infrastructure for the integration of medical records among different healthcare facilities as well as data integrity features through its immutable ledger technology. Blockchain is capable of establishing a robust and secure transparent framework of storing digital medical records that brings quality services for the patients as well as reducing treatment costs.

Energy Industry: One of the main uses of blockchain in energy-related applications is in microgrids. A microgrid is a localized set of electric power sources and loads integrated and managed with the objective of enhancing energy production and consumption efficiencies and reliabilities [12]. The electric power sources can be distributed power generators, renewable energy stations, and energy storage components in facilities created and owned by different organizations or energy providers. One of the main
advantages of microgrid technology is that it does not only allow residents and other electric power consumers such as factories to have access to the needed energy, but they can also produce and sell excess energy to the grid. Blockchain can be used to facilitate, record, and validate power selling and buying transactions in microgrids.

Stock Market: Blockchain technology could solve the issues for fragmented market systems, such as interoperability, trust, and transparency [13]. Due to the role of intermediaries, the regulatory process and operational trade clearance, it takes more than 3 days to complete and finalize all transactions. As
a result, the stock market participants, for example, traders, regulators, brokers and the stock exchange are going through a cumbersome process. Blockchain may be the solution in this regard. It can make the stock exchange more optimal through decentralization and automation. By eliminating intermediaries and speeding up transaction settlements, blockchain can help reduce cost.

Voting: Blockchain can be utilized in different fields as a solution to the problems that a standard database might have. One such problem can be seen in voting. Recently, it was revealed that a major U.S. voting machine manufacturer had installed remote access software on some systems [14]. This software allowed for the alteration of votes when counting the total. Instances such as this create a lack of trust in America’s voting system, as seen in a recent poll:” Exclusive poll: Majority expects foreign meddling in midterms”. This poll suggests that only approximately a quarter of Americans feel confident that their vote is being counted. Blockchain would solve this issue by providing a distributed ledger that would ensure votes are counted since the ledger a voter owns is the same as the one counting the total.

Identity Management: In the real world, personal identity can be verified using identity documents such as a driver’s license, national ID card, and passport. However, there is hardly any effective equivalent system for securing online identities. Blockchain may render an approach to circumvent this concern. This technology can be used to create a platform to protect an individual’s identity from being theft or reduces fraudulent activities. Blockchain may allow individuals to create an encrypted identity that does not require any username or password while offering more security features and control over accessing their personal information. By comprising identity verification with that decentralized blockchain principle, a digital ID can be generated. This ID can be assigned to every online transaction similar to a watermark. Hence, it will aid organizations to detect and eliminate the possibility of fraud by checking identity on every real-time transaction Blockchain-based solutions on identity management could enable the consumer to access and verify online payments by simply using an app for authentication instead of using a username and password or biometric methods

Insurance: Blockchain can be used to support the insurance marketplace transactions between different clients, policyholders, and insurance companies. Blockchain can be used to negotiate, buy and register insurance policies, submit and process claims, and support reinsurance activities among insurance companies. Furthermore, blockchain enables insurance companies to be expanded globally.

References

  • Danezis and S. Meiklejohn, “Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies,” 2015.
  • Biswas and V. Muthukkumarasamy, “Securing smart cities using blockchain technology,” in 18th IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, 14th IEEE International Conference on Smart City and 2nd IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Systems, HPCC/SmartCity/DSS 2016, December 12, 2016 – December 14, 2016, 2016, pp. 1392-1393.
  • T. S. Liu, “Medical record system using blockchain, big data and tokenization,” in 18th International Conference on Information and Communications Security, ICICS 2016, November 29, 2016 – December 2, 2016, 2016, pp. 254-261
  • Xiao, H. Wang, D. Jin, M. Li, and J. Wei, “Healthcare Data Gateways: Found Healthcare Intelligence on Blockchain with Novel Privacy Risk Control,” Journal of Medical Systems, vol. 40, p. 218, 2016.
  • Kraft, “Difficulty control for blockchain-based consensus systems,”
    Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, vol. 9, pp. 397-413, 2016-01-01 2016.
  • Vukoli, “The quest for scalable blockchain fabric: Proof-of-work vs.
    BFT replication,” in IFIP WG 11.4 International Workshop on Open Problems in Network Security, iNetSec 2015, October 29, 2015 – October 29, 2015, 2016, pp. 112-125.
  • Idelberger, G. Governatori, R. Riveret, and G. Sartor, “Evaluation of
    Logic-Based Smart Contracts for Blockchain Systems,”, Cham, Switzerland, 2016, pp. 167-83.
  • D. Glass, “Counterfeit drugs and medical devices in developing countries,” Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine, vol. 2014, pp. 11–22, 2014.
  • H. Lasseter and P. Piagi, “Microgrid: A conceptual solution,” in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, vol. 6. Citeseer, 2004, pp. 4285–4291.
  • Lee, “New kids on the blockchain: How bitcoin’s technology could reinvent the stock market,” Hastings Bus. LJ, vol. 12, p. 81, 2015.
  • D. Glass, “Counterfeit drugs and medical devices in developing countries,” Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine, vol. 2014, pp. 11–22, 2014.
  • H. Lasseter and P. Piagi, “Microgrid: A conceptual solution,” in IEEE Power Electronics specialists Conference, vol. 6. Citeseer, 2004, pp. 4285–4291.
  • Lee, “New kids on the blockchain: How bitcoin’s technology could
    reinvent the stock market,” Hastings Bus. LJ, vol. 12, p. 81, 2015.
  • “Fair fight donate via ActBlue,” https://secure.actblue.com/donate/
    fair-fight-reproductive-rights, (Accessed on 05/21/2019).