INTERNATIONAL LAW: THE LEGAL NEED OF GLOBALISED WORLD

In this current era of globalisation and cross border international relation International law stands out as one of the most effective tools to bring about efficiency for future progress.  

International law has wider ambit and covers over almost every aspects of legal and policy framework. International law in the forms of treaty between state parties and thus stands as the best and only sets of law and rule used by international bodies and organisation to carry out world governance. One of the most essential future aspects of studying international law is the opportunity of working with or at several international organisations. This includes both international and regional bodies thus creating scope for aspirants to engage into work experience and get involved to work with several organisational giants’ starting from UNEP, UNHRC in international level to SAARC in national level..  

It also stands as a stalwart in aspects of judicial functioning and legal practice. Referring to the former it is obvious to mention about the International Court of Justice, this court recruits Judges from all its Member signatories and recruits several others at its co related organisations which ranges from UN Maritime Tribunal to UN Dispute Tribunal. All such field requires great expertise and knowledge in international law and the subdivision of international law.  

Future aspects of international law not only restricted to organisational work, but also as councils in Legal Firms and have to their credits being recruited by both national and abroad legal firms. Currently several international and overseas legal firms has opened up their branches in India and this firms gives priority to person who has a sound knowledge and background of international law.   

On being an independent law in it nature is not restricted by state parties and is thus extremely effective in having their own body of Policy Researcher and Policy framers. On qualifying in international law one can engage in work with policy making bodies. This policy regulatory body includes wide range of work starting from policy researcher, policy adviser to policy framers. This policy framing body on further engages into debates of policy betterment at International Parliamentary policy discussion and for that it requires expertise particularly in international law.  

It further includes works and opportunity at embassies. International law graduates are often recruited by embassies to function as legal advisor and legal diplomats working on regulation of treaties and cross boundary contracts. The recruitment process at embassies emphasises and prefers people having sound knowledge of international law. Thus a graduate in international law gets involved with several governmental works at the embassy and are has carrier opportunity to be a part of international diplomatic work at cross border level.  

International law stands out as one of the most promising field not only practitioner field of law but also in legal academics. Any graduate after their completion in international law can go for a Maters Program in International law in both India and abroad. The abroad universities gives preference to the students who has a prior knowledge in international law. Moreover as international law is not just a single discipline rather it includes wide range of other discipline under its domain which ranges from International Environmental law, International trade law to International Law of Wars Treaties and Peace thus an academic field can be perused in any of this field.  

Moreover it is the only law which has Masters Program for both educational and practice purpose. International law has Professional Maters program also which enriches aspirants with greater depth of knowledge who seeks to carry out a carrier in practice. In Professional Masters of International law a great exposure is provided in field of practice and efficacy of international law at all field of applicability.  

It acts as one of the most essential subject when it comes in aspects of Juristic work or legal critics or legal authors and writers. Several policies prepared by treaty bound countries and regulatory bodies on framing of any treaties or legislation which is applicable at international level seeks for suggestion from Jurists who has good efficiency over international law. International law also need an effective form of criticism and authors contribution who  can give a critical view over what are the needs of changes in a legislation or what can be the applicability effect of a particular legislation. The responsibility of providing such crucial critical analysis are given upon people who expertise and has experience in international law.  

Research work ranges from institutional research organisation to research for international law bodies and policy framers research work. All such agencies recruits particularly from international law background who advises, scrutinizes and works to research upon several field of international law and working of international bodies. The research work aids to further efficiency of Law agencies, International Judicial bodies and International policy making organisation. The efficiency in international legal research gives opportunity to be part of several esteemed inter-governmental work force and work upon research exchange programs.  

The field of international law and policy research does not always needs to be a part of such international organisations but can also function as independent research bodies who works upon contractual basis with several international organisation. The research bodies are entrusted upon and works on extensive research works to aid the work of such international organisation or at times the research bodies provides effective task force on scrutiny of work done by several such organisation, supervises work and Judgments given by International court and tribunals thus making it easy for everyone to understand the contribution and guidelines provided by such bodies.  

One of the most important aspects of international law is that it aids to or works as background of several legal and related work fields. It includes Human Rights, International relation and much more. Every country is a signatory to the UNHRC and there lies a great carrier prospect in association with such human right work process. The Human Rights Commission recruits law graduates and professional who has prior knowledge in international law. International law is known as the parent body of human rights and it is international law who governs the growth and functioning of human rights. Another such related field of work is work related to international relations. International relation among states is dependent on the prevailing functioning between two Country states 

It needs to be always taken into consideration that unlike domestic law international law is more flexible and an ever-expanding nature of law. It brings into its periphery all forms of law and regulation several law which are absent in territorial legal system of the country but are present in abroad countries opens up scope to all under the aspect of international law like Law related to Animations and Design and much more. Thus international law forms an ever-expanding future scope and it can never be crowded with more aspirants than scope as it keeps on evolving with new concept and opportunity due to its flexible nature.  

International law is the current need of the hour and the call for aspirant with international law in the time of World Wide globalisation is a current rising phenomenon. This field of law provides knowledge and experience to young mind without boundaries and ensures ever expanding growth.

Be a Skilled Engineer through B.Tech Mechanical Engineering Program

Mechanical Engineering is an Engineering Branch that combines engineering physics and mathematics principles with materials science to design, analyse, Manufacture and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering branch. 

B.Tech Mechanical Engineering is a 4-year undergraduate engineering degree course. This course prepares the students to become Mechanical Engineers. There are a large number of national and state-level entrance exams to appear for admission into the BTech Mechanical Engineering program.  

Some of the popular BTech Mechanical Engineering entrance exams are as follows,  

WBJEE: WBJEEB conducts the exam to grant admission to students in 4 years of undergraduate Engineering, Technology courses offered by the colleges in West Bengal. Eligible criteria to appear in this exam as follows, 

  • Candidates must have cleared their 10+2 level examinations with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics as compulsory subjects. 
  • The qualifying aggregate score required in Class 12 is at least 50% and above. 

AUAT: AUAT Examination is conducted by Adamas University at the global level. It is usually conducted in the month of May to July. The exam tests students on subjects like Mathematics, Physics & Chemistry. Eligible criteria to appear in this exam as follows, 

  • Candidates must have cleared their 10+2 level examinations with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics as compulsory subjects. 
  • Must have at least 60% in Class 12th. 

After qualifying for this exam students will be seat for the Interview and documents verification process. After final verification to grant admission to students in 4years B.Tech Mechanical Engineering program offered by the Adamas University in West Bengal. In this Pandemic situation, Adamas University has started online admission process so that International & outer state level students is easily admitted to this global university.   

WBJEE JEELET: West Bengal Joint Entrance for Lateral Entry Test will be conducted by the West Bengal Joint Entrance Examinations Board at the State Level to provide admission to the candidates in the second year of Bachelor Degree courses (four years) in Technology/ Engineering/ Pharmacy in Universities, Colleges of West Bengal state. Eligible criteria to appear in this exam as follows, 

  • For Diploma Holders: Must have done Diploma in the relevant branch having a minimum of 45% marks (40% in case of SC/ ST/ PwD candidates) 
  • For B.Sc. candidates: Must have completed their B.Sc degree from any UGC recognized University having a minimum of 45% marks (40% in case of SC/ ST/ PwD candidates). They must have cleared 10+2 with Mathematics subject. 
  • Diploma Holders, as well as B.Sc candidates who wish to seek admission into Engineering and Technology Degree course, will also be eligible for First-year Engineering Degree courses in case there is no vacancy for lateral entry at second year having at least 45% marks (40% in case of SC/ ST/ PwD candidates). 

After Qualifying any one of the exams you can choose your college or University, where you start learning and as a Mechanical Engineer you should be a good skilled person instead of theoretical knowledge. There will be always a huge demand for skilled Mechanical Engineers in the following top industries, 

Automobile industry, Aerospace Industry, Robotics and Mechatronics, Power Plant sector, Manufacturing sector, Production sector, Automation sector, Design sector, Construction sector etc. 

University gives you the platform so that you can be a skilled Engineer. There are several benefits one can enjoy while studying in a University, 

  • You’ll get exposed to world-class education and technologies compared to the students who study in college. 
  • The infrastructure of the University will be better than the colleges out there. 
  • You’ll get more opportunity for research-related activities. 
  • The faculty members will be more experienced and will have exceptional knowledge of their field. 
  • You can get your work done on your own campus. Whenever a problem arises, you should have to reach your University if you study at a college. 
  • If the University is global, it will surely attract a greater number of reputed companies visiting their campus for recruitment. 
  • In some Universities, only the students of their main campus have the privilege to enjoy the semester abroad program. 
  • Most of the old University have better tie-ups with foreign universities which will help the students to choose their dream university for semester abroad programs and other research-related activities. I give an example, Adamas University has already signed collaboration agreements with 43 university in 21 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, North & South America, UK,  USA etc. 
  • Your degree will have more value and power than the one awarded from a college. 
  • Moreover, the quality of education, which is the ultimate goal of a student, will be on par. 

Universities are too tough to get in. But once you got into it, then you’ll have some best years of your life. 

In B.Tech mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production, and operation of machinery. The Adamas University Course Curriculum includes all the new generation Mechanical Engineering Courses that can be used to become a skilled Mechanical Engineer and also gives the following opportunity after completion of 4th-year B.Tech Mechanical Engineering, 

Private Sector: – Many of the reputed Industry like TATA, Simplex, Titaghar Wagons Ltd, T-Web Exponent Services Pvt. Ltd, Pinnacles Infotech Solution etc visiting their campus for recruitment every year. 

Government Sector: – The PSU or Public Sector Undertaking Companies carry out recruitment drives almost every year to absorb a large number of mechanical engineers. And the number of PSUs that employ mechanical graduates are huge. In this context total 30 PSUs like RITES LTD, ONGC, IOCL, NFL, IPR, NFL, MDL, BPCL, GAIL, NALCO, HPCL, HAL, BEML, BHEL, NTPC, WBSEDCL, SAIL etc will be hiring the mechanical students according to the score of GATE 2021. The basic line of work of all these PSUs involves Boilers and Turbines and other similar machines that require the expertise of Mechanical Engineers. 

Every year, Railways absorb a massive number of mechanical engineers in Assistant Loco Pilot, Junior Engineer and Section Engineer Posts. 

Many Central govt sectors like DRDO (Défense Research Development Organization), ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization), SSC (Staff Selection Commission) (JE, SE), LIC, NIC Surveyor (Mechanical) etc hire Mechanical Engineers B.Tech. through their own exam. 

Mechanical Engineers work on the ground for the Indian Army. As a Mechanical Engineers will either be taking care of a submarine or the fighter ship in the Navy, aircraft in the Airforce or the tanks in the ground troops 

Many of the states in India has conducted their own exam like PSC (Public Service Commission) (Assistant Engineer), MSC (Municipal Service Commission) (Assistant Engineer), WBCS, UPSC, State University Lecturer etc. for hiring mechanical Students. 

Research Sector: – In Adamas University Course Curriculum includes few elective courses like MEMS, Friction Stir Welding, Composites, Mechatronics, Nano Technology, Finite Elements Analysis, BioMechanics, Computational Fluid Dynamics etc which is used to show the new direction towards Mechanical research. 

Significance of Computer Science Engineering in a COVID-19 infested Era

Ever since the outbreak of COVID-19 or the novel coronavirus from December 2019 till date, the whole world is adversely impacted by the induced pandemic which has forced on every form of the established system, a drastic change in the day-to-day lives of the people belonging to different strata of the society. The socio-economic setup that was prevalent throughout the world, is already significantly shattered, and hence calls for the conceiving as well as establishing a new system wherein the various functionalities may ensure the smooth and orderly execution of different aspects of the human society can be reinstated keeping in mind the robustness of this system against a pandemic like situation such as these.

This COVID-19 infested pandemic has exposed major loopholes and faulty perceptions regarding the various domains like, healthcare sector, financial institutions & bodies, educational establishments, research & developments bodies as well as public welfare organizations, as a result of which the whole world community stands not just clueless but also helpless in grappling with the current catastrophe.

a) Impact of Covid on the domain

The viral outbreak at a massive global scale has forced governments across the world to impose hard lockdowns and travel restrictions thereby compelling the shutdown of offices that offer varied services related to several sectors. Furthermore, at an individual level, people need to maintain a safe distance and be physically covered (especially facial areas) at maximum times when outside. This has invariably impacted interpersonal communication greatly.

Considering all the above factors, a computer/smartphone device, internet connectivity and a relatively stable power supply has come to the rescue of people in many ways. Professionals associated with the computer science & engineering domain are able to maintain various sorts of data in large bulks securely and meticulously with the help of different technologies. Furthermore, with the advent and development of the internet infrastructure, an abundance of virtual space can be created and managed for warehousing these data. Various applications are these days widely used via handheld devices to serve day-to-day purposes like product or food delivery, cab or train booking, hotel booking, seat reservation at any event, online academic courses, online mails, messaging and meeting and so on.

With this current pandemic prevailing all over, the usage of the above online applications is greatly amplified as these software-based utility tools are proving to be beneficial in running the various sectors simply while sitting at home. More and more people are continually seeking online services and demanding applications that will make it possible in every way to handle various business or commercial activities, smoothen the functioning of the education and healthcare sector and providing real-time support to travel as well as transport services. Even in the entertainment industry and also crime investigation & forensics, complex application development with easy user-friendly outlooks are ever-growing.

In short, the computer science & information technology domain has invariably become even more lucrative, prospective and ever-growing field as the pandemic has forced majority of the services to go “online”. Interestingly, a number of professions has by this time become obsolete and many individuals lost their jobs except for some cases such as this domain. These days the most important and valued element is data on various things and this data is available in such large quantities that it needs organized storage and management. While attempting to find a robust and effective solution to the COVID-19 virus, several amounts of data are being recorded and used. Efficient handling and accessing of such data is thus necessitated which is realized by the applications developed by various professionals who are experts in the computer science field.

b) New trends

As mentioned earlier, several sectors across the world are either closed down or grappling to survive by somehow managing to lift their face up the troubled waters of the pandemic crisis. An interesting trend of relying on online services is being noticed among such sectors.

Education: With almost all academic institutions physically shut down, this sector has shifted to online mode of admission, lecture delivery, examination conduction, assignment delivery, subject-wise note sharing and student evaluation. These activities require the support of some multimedia-enabled devices having a camera, microphone and speaker, online document preparing web services, and virtual (cloud-based) storage space. There has emerged a vogue of online coaching and academic preparation via the use of mobile apps like Byju’s Classes, Unacademy and so on which have reduced the dependency on availing tutors. Altogether, all these necessitate the development of software-based applications that require the expertise of domain professionals.

Healthcare: Currently as the majority of the professionals in this sector are the frontline ‘warriors’ in this battle against the pandemic, naturally, they are highly exposed and vulnerable to the COVID-19 virus attack. Despite the extreme precautions taken, most of them even are losing their lives to this deadly virus given the highly contagious environment they are working in. This has led to a fear of psychosis among the general public to avoid visiting the doctors and other medical professionals for a routine health checkup.  As a result, the growing demand for online health checkup from home has led many software and app developers to build such dedicated applications that aid in routine healthcare and delivery of medicines. Some of the prominent apps operating in India are DoctorOnDemand and PharmEasy.

Business, Commerce, Banking & Industry: Several commercial and industrial workplaces are physically shut thereby causing losses and job cuts. A growing need has propped up for automation of industrial machinery and online support to various financial services as well as transactions, remote ordering, selling and purchasing, delivery of items. Some of these applications are realized by popular app services like Yono app (State bank of India), PolicyBazaar, Amazon, Flipkart, Paytm, Myntra.

c) Areas of research

Unlike other domains where research and development include extensive needs for laboratory or enterprise-level facilities and field works, pursuing research in the computer science domain requires just three things at home: a good quality computer system/workstation, internet connection and access to research-level online repositories. There are several open-source development tools that can be downloaded and utilized for effective research. Some of the major domains where computer science has pervaded are Medical science, genetics & genomics, microbiology, transport technologies, core industrial & engineering, basic sciences. Researchers under this domain by sheer knowledge of Artificial Intelligence, Data Science, Machine Learning and Deep Learning are gradually succeeding in presenting automated models for determining the nature and spread of the COVID-19 virus. Although the concept of Artificial Intelligence is not new (coined in 1956 by John McCarthy), the extensive development and the need for massive automation across several fields has uplifted the status of this concept that has led to enhanced research in Artificial Intelligence, Data Science, Machine Learning and Deep Learning. In short, a professional equipped with such domain knowledge easily feels valued and almost indispensable across several multi-disciplinary fields.

Chemistry: An Indispensable tool to understand coronavirus from its transmission to treatment

Chemistry-based research from the laboratory to industries are progressing their efforts towards discovering more about the virus, developing improved testing technologies, and eventually discovering drugs to treat the disease. Chemistry as the subject of practice in every step of life is essential at every step of our response to contain the virus. Scientists throughout the world are involved in evolving new diagnostic methods to be deployed for the SARS-CoV-2 identification including optical biosensors and point-of-care diagnostics. 

In spite of an immensely disrupted class routine, there will surely be thousands of students going on to study and work in chemistry in the years to come. Through this blog, we are trying to document the chemical science community’s role in response to the recent outbreak of coronavirus. 

COVID-19 disease transmission route inspired by Gas-Phase Chemistry: 

The person-to-person spread of infectious respiratory diseases like COVID-19 occurs primarily due to the transference of virus-laden fluid particles from the diseased person. The infectious fluid particles instigate from the respiratory tract of the person and are ejected from the nose and the mouth during breathing, speaking, whistling, sneezing, and coughing etc. These particles have been broadly classified into two types: aerosols (aerodynamic particle size <5 μm) and droplets (aerodynamic particle size ≥5 μm–10 μm). The outcomes indicated that the transmission phenomena of these virus particles ejected by patients would be dependent on droplet sizes. Once expelled from the mouth or nose, bigger respiratory droplets endure gravitational subsiding before evaporation; in contrast, the smaller droplet particles evaporate faster than they settle down, afterwards forming the aerosolized droplet nuclei that can be deferred for prolonged periods and foldaway in the air over long distances. Investigations by Bourouiba et al. have shown that these droplets can travel rather large distances initially within a turbulent jet, which later transition to a puff or a cloud due to the lack of a continuous momentum source. Depending on the ambient conditions and droplet size, these droplets evaporate at different times. Chemical kinetics-based model i.e. the application of Lattice Boltzmann Method with Brownian dynamics to access the effects of nanoparticles at the liquid-vapour interface of an evaporating sessile droplet can be coupled with of evaporation, dispersion and precipitation to devise a hitherto new methodology to predict the infection spread in the context of COVID-19. 

All most all investigations have found that SARS-CoV-2 virus stability monotonically decreases with an increase in temperature. It has also been found that the enveloped viruses like SARS-CoV-2 survive well in droplets far from their dried state, as well as in the desiccated residue where the virus remains in a frozen state, these shreds of evidence prove that virus survivability within desiccated nuclei enables the virus to be airborne. To prove these, chemists have used 1% (w/w) NaCl aqueous solution as a substitute respiratory fluid and 100nm fluorescent particles as a stand-in virus, whose concentration was controlled from 0.005 to 0.1%. Featured basic mechanism in particle deposition in water-based solutions explained in these studies can be extended to pathogens, the dynamics in respiratory droplets are more involved due to the physicochemical complexities and the resulting variation in thermo-physical properties. 

Role of synthetic chemists in the development of drugs  

The development of antibiotics was one of the most important scientific innovations of the twentieth century, as it drastically reduced the threat of bacterial infections. Though the early antibiotics era was characterized by fully synthetic compounds (e.g., sulfonamides and organoarsenicals) and was largely pioneered by industrial chemists, the modern era of natural product-based antibiotics witnessed significant contributions from academia. Penicillin V  and vancomycin provide two examples where synthetic chemists have made impactful, translational contributions by pursuing fundamental research interests. In this time of pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, chemists from worldwide are trying their best to delineate different drugs to annihilate this virus.  the antiviral drugs commonly used in clinical practice to treat viral infections are not applicable to SARS-Cov-2. Thus, it is very necessary to identify new drugs suitable for the treatment of the 2019-nCoV outbreak 

Nanotrap: Chemists from the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering have designed an entirely novel potential treatment for COVID-19: nanoparticles that apprehend SARS-CoV-2 viruses within the body and then use the body’s own immune system to annihilate it. 

These “Nanotraps” entice the virus by imitating the marked cells the virus infects. When the virus muddles to the Nanotraps, the traps then impound the virus from other cells and target it for annihilation by the immune system. 

In theory, these Nanotraps could also be used on variants of the virus, leading to a potential new way to constrain the virus moving forward. Though the therapy remains in the early stages of testing, the researchers envision it could be administered via a nasal spray as a treatment for COVID-19. 

HTCC: An antiviral potential of the polymer HTCC [N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride], which efficiently hampered infection of all low-pathogenicity human coronaviruses in vitro and ex vivo.  The hydrophobically-modified derivative (HM-HTCC) acts as potent inhibitors of the coronavirus HCoV-NL63.  we show It has been investigated as that HTCC inhibits interaction of a virus with its receptor and thus blocks the entrySynthetic chemists are trying to delineate the process through which the HTCC interferes with the virus replication. The photophysical study of HTCC labelled with FITC in water were measured in the absence and in the presence of various concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 domains to understand the effectivity of HTCC. 

Application of polymer chemistry to contain SARS-CoV 2: 

Polyelectrolytes: The surface of such envelope virus is found to be rich in amino acid residues. Therefore, polyanions may be used to electrostatically bind to the spike (S) glycoprotein, which binds to the ACE2 protein as an important step in host cell invasion and prevent the virus from interacting with the host cell’s surface. Thus, polyanions and polycations can be used to potentially interrupt the binding between the virus and host cell. As examples, Poly(propylacrylic acid), poly(vinylbenzoic acid) (PVBzA), poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA), and poly(2-acrylamidoethyl)phosphate may be developed as bio-compatible to exhibit this inhibitory effect. 

Dendritic Polymer: Dendritic or highly branched polymers that possess greater solubilities, larger surface areas, and tuneable shapes are being investigated to hinder the virus and cell binding. These types of polymers are being designed to be non-toxic and bio-compatible thus they can act as co-receptor and subsequently, mediate the entry of the SARS-CoV2 virus to the host cells. 

Natural Polymer: Natural polymers like  polysaccharides, cyclodextrins (CDs) and chitosan are reported to inhibit the attachment of coronavirus to host cells because of their ability to remove cholesterol from cell membranes. These polymers can inhibit the replication of the virus in the host cell.  Moreover, polysaccharides can activate T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and other immune cells to improvise an advantageous immune response to inhibit the virulent effect. It is worthy to mention here that natural polymers inherently possess greater biocompatibility compared to synthetic polymers, which serves as one of the major factor for their applicability as potential drugs. 

Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused a global health crisis with high rates of infection and mortality. However, in existing treatment programmes, there are latent drawbacks such as they are time-consuming and full proof. It is hoped that the chemists along with scientists & technologists from interdisciplinary branches throughout the world will develop better model and drugs in the near future and move toward clinical treatment as soon as possible. More clinical trials with these suitable drugs should be performed on patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 of different mutant strains to prove their efficacy and safety. Not only chemists, but it’s a team’s of scientists of all spheres and philosophers’ activity towards investigation how the system can be used to help medical professionals treat patients more effectively.  

As a chemist, we have learned that we are very resilient and have discovered our extra efficacies in terms of serving the people, we may not have found had this pandemic not happened. 

References: 

  1. KuritzkesD.R. Drug resistance in HIV-1. Curr. Opin. Virol. 2011;1:582–589. doi: 10.1016/j.coviro.2011.10.020. 
  2. TannockG.A., Kim H., Xue L. Why are vaccines against many human viral diseases still unavailable; an historic perspective? J. Med. Virol. 2020;92:129–138. 
  3. KC GB, Bocci G, Verma S. et al. A machine learning platform to estimate anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities.
  4. ToturaA.L., Bavari S. Broad-spectrum coronavirus antiviral drug discovery. Expet Opin. Drug Discov. 2019;14(4):397–412. 
  5. LiowS.S., Chee P.L., Owh C., Zhang K., Zhou Y., Gao F., Lakshminarayanan R., Loh X.J. Cationic poly ([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) copolymers as antimicrobial agents. Macromol. Biosci.  
  6. Lin Q., Lim J.Y.,Xue K., Yew P.Y.M., Owh C., Chee P.L., Loh X.J. Sanitizing agents for virus inactivation and disinfection. View. 2020 

Choosing a Career as an Environmental Engineer

What to choose? Which subject to take? Shall I get good job opportunities? What would be the earning potential?… Etc.

These are some of the common concerns that we have before embarking on further education, but take a deep breath and consider environmental engineering as a career option. Isn’t it fascinating to learn more about the world in which we work or to solve the problems that our environment faces on a daily basis? Obviously, it’s interesting! Let’s get started on gathering as much information as possible about our environmental studies. Environmental engineering is a branch of engineering and scientific knowledge of strategies to apply to the practical improvement of the environment. Another thing to say about an environmental specialist: it can provide a cover or assurance for our current situation, as well as strengthen the relationship between humans and the natural climate. Natural engineering gave us the ability to interact with both nature and individuals. As a result, create a capable undertaking that can have a long-term result. Difficulties and significant issues are present in each venture, which requires great understudies and a workforce. An environmental engineer is attempting to develop a new device, a natural structure plan, EIA planning, and is also developing a new monetary model, though environmental management improvement is more satisfactory than theories are the use of the premises.

Why is it necessary to conduct further research into environmental engineering?

 It is past time for us to become more rational and calculative as a result of the novel objective for environmental engineering. There are many research, programs, and realistic applications that we cannot overlook. In master’s programs, environmental engineering is a multidisciplinary topic with a lot of theory papers and lab work, project work, and seeing how the hypothesis applies with your own experiences. Other skills, such as technical reading and writing, critical thinking, and board ability, are required in addition to the hypothetical material.

 We can likewise choose between two sorts of Experts degrees:     

  • If there is someone who is more concerned about the natural arrangement builder planner, they may pursue a master’s degree in natural engineering.
  • If anybody is interested in the exploration field, they can go for M. Tech in Environmental Engineering.

Who Are We and What We Do?

In the current period, we can see an increase in demand in the engineering sector across various divisions. If we look at the previous survey results, we can see that environmental engineering is receiving the same attention and opportunities as other fields. Many of us believe that saving the earth is a task for the future, so why bother doing it now? This is not the case; it is having a positive and direct effect on people’s daily lives all over the world.

Now comes the issue of how an environmental engineer can assist in achieving a healthy and sustainable climate, and what positions do they play in this regard.

 Environmental engineering, as we all know, is closely connected to environmental science in that it employs scientific and engineering concepts to protect and enhance the environment. It also includes the design and technology for improving environmental quality. The working areas for environmental engineers are air pollution control, radiation protection, hazardous waste management, industrial hygiene, recycling, toxic material control, wastewater management, solid waste disposal, and public health and land management, protection of wildlife, prevent the production and repercussion of acid rain, global warming, and ozone depletion. Life will be difficult without environmental engineers because we can only live and continue our work if our world is clean and secure. The most fascinating aspect of this subject is that students who want to study environmental engineering will gain a broad understanding of a variety of topics including mathematics, engineering design, biology, microbiology, computer science, ecology, public health, economics, and geology.

Let us move on to the job opportunities after learning about the course specifics. What kind of job will an individual get after completing a B. Tech or M. Tech in environmental engineering?

There are many fields where environmental engineers are been appointed, are:

  • Environmental related projects with national & international firms.
  • Universities or colleges where they can teach, conduct research, and share knowledge on environmental control acts.
  • Industry or company for handling wastewater treatment system, treat and dispose of hazardous waste, etc.
  • Municipal agencies for water supply system.
  • Laboratories
  • Government sectors
  • And plenty of opportunity in fertilizer plants, refineries, food processing industries, etc.

Job Outlook of Environmental Engineering is Great!!!

When we think of studying and pursuing a career in engineering, we usually think of mother streams like civil, mechanical, or electrical engineering, but there is one branch that is becoming increasingly relevant today: environmental engineering. Nothing can be better than to having a career which is meaningful, satisfying, as well as rewarding, and environmental engineering fits perfectly on these criteria. Environmental engineers are extremely satisfied with their careers because they know what they are doing has a major impact on our future; and they are able to fulfill their responsibilities towards our nature and society.

With increasing environmental issues, our young generations are getting aware; as a result, colleges and universities have started offering environmental engineering programmes. The master’s program in this regard will help to better understand the environmental problems and find solutions with the help of technology as well as to raise awareness among the students. 

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the average growth rate for employment of environmental engineers is going to exceed 15% by 2014 to 2024, which is way faster than the average for all other occupations. Why? Because with the modernization and development, our environment is also getting polluted and we are becoming more aware to save the world. As a result, job opportunities for environmental experts will increase. It’ll help us to find a job anywhere in the world, from India to Australia to Europe and beyond, this is truly a global career.

Talking about salaries, environmental engineers get paid pretty well. Although money is not everything, but we live in a world where we need money to survive. Based on a survey of salaries in India, the results show that an experienced environmental engineer receives an average compensation of Rs 10,19,862. So, they can lead a beautiful life.

This was some of the most valuable knowledge about environmental engineering; hopefully, after reading this, the majority of your questions will be answered. Ergo, time to come forward and ‘Be a part of solution not a part of the pollution’.

Unravel the mystery of M.Tech in Computer Science

Are you a final-year student? Are you in dilemma about what should be your next step for your career? Is it a job you need after your B.Tech or is it a certification you need to kickstart your career or you need an M.Tech to give a boost to your career? These are quite common questions that dwell in every engineering students mind.

In my old days, I was also had the same state of mind and it got more fuel when I saw that some of my friends started preparing for GRE, TOFEL and some took some MNC based jobs and some joined some started preparing for some government jobs.    

First, let me share my side of the story for going ahead with M.Tech. I saw a few of my seniors work under different IT companies and found there they not only need to be shinning every day but they have to upskill themselves mostly on a regular basis. As most of the curriculum does not cater to the present-day industry needs. Most importantly it is very challenging to upskill and perform in your job on a daily basis.

Though the short-term certifications will earn you various skills unfortunately it will never be enough for you to increase your scale to a different level. Whereas post M.Tech the job perspective and eligibility for your career multiplies exponentially. Not only you are eligible for industry jobs but you can be a part of building an engineering society by producing quality engineers and also can contribute to different research activities and see your creation come live and help society. 

Some students have experienced the importance of having a post-graduation degree, post they had spent around more than 5 years in the industry and had set for the different executive program but most cases these executive programs are not a full-time program and not focused in developing a strong academic background. 

Is GATE is mandatory for perusing M.Tech in Computer Science and Engineering?

GATE is just a competitive examination by which students can be evaluated with a common test thus giving the selectors a common criterion to select candidates. But if you are academically strong then you can peruse M.Tech without GATE.

What awaits for me post M.Tech in Computer Science and Engineering?

The opportunities get increased exponentially post M.Tech. Your option of joining the industry becomes wider with a higher package, along with you can be a part of any academic institute, research institute, government institute, private institute, peruse PhD to name a few.

Which branch should I choose for my M.Tech course of studies?

You can choose any branch of studies for your M.Tech course but as per the regulation of various government bodies and looking at your career it is advisable the course should be relevant to your B.Tech course of studies. 

Where to study M.Tech?

At Adamas University, we design and update our curriculum frequently to meet the changing demand of the present-day industry while making you academically aware of many of your future endeavours.  

BBA in Digital Marketing-Unique Aspects

Digital Marketing is a booming industry in India as well as across the globe. Almost all businesses are going online in their marketing activities to survive in the market for a long term, the demand for digital marketers is increasing at a rapid rate and is opening doors for plenty of job seekers. 

Recent study shows that the employment sector has seen a major share of jobs generated by the Digital Marketing Industry, in recent years. As per various media reports, the year 2016 saw over 1.5 lakh job opportunities in the Digital Marketing domain. 2017 threw a major surprise by marking around 8 lakh job opportunities in the field. In India, this number is expected to grow rapidly with the advent of Digitalisation in the country. 

When small businesses get started, their focus is often on how to get their first group of customers through the door. They may rely on traditional forms of advertising, such as print ads and coupon mailers or even big signs on the side of the road. They may trust that since they know they offer a good product or service, it’s only a matter of time until customers will find their way to them. While this strategy may bring in a trickle of business, there is a better and easier way. Small businesses should consider the huge marketplace of prospects online. No small business, no matter how new, should overlook this vast marketplace. The group of potential customers that are found online is a much larger group of people than you are likely to be able to attract locally. Using digital marketing, you can reach an enormous audience in a way that is both cost-effective and measurable.

Digital Marketing simply defined as an umbrella including all internet or online marketing activities that helps in the brand promotion or lead generation in such a competitive business environment. More and more customers are advancing towards a digital era, which also influences the business to incorporate digital marketing platform to reach maximum audiences within a short period. Digital Channels simply described as various mediums or paths that help the organization or marketers to promote themselves among various customers (new and existing both) within domestic as well as international market. Digital Channels combines Google search, display, email, social media (Facebook) and websites.

Digital Marketing program presents helps to boost a strategic use of e-commerce and related information technology from three perspectives: business to consumers, business-to-business, and intra-organizational. Examination of e-commerce in altering the structure of entire industries, and how it affects business processes including electronic transactions, supply chains, decision making and organizational performance.

New Avenues of Digital Marketing Program

The career scope in the industry is attracting the masses, and this is one of the reasons various professionals are learning the course to enter the industry. The current market status of Digital Marketing shows that it is at its peak, and is going to stay so for obvious reasons. According to Payscale.com, the average salary package of a digital marketing manager is Rs 5 lakh to Rs 6 lakh annually, as of 2019. Professionals with experience earn in the range of Rs. 15- 25 Lakh.

As an entrepreneur or running a business, competition is an integral part, where comes a digital marketing platform that helps in driving more traffic. It helps in implementing strategies, to measure the approach that helps in reaching more customers. It also drives better ROI than traditional or offline marketing approach while maintaining better product awareness and promotion.

As a marketing professional, for marketing and sales professional, those who are in the traditional marketing segment, this is the high time to be a successful digital marketer. With an increase in demand for hiring digital marketing professional by business units, there is also lacking proper digital marketing trained professionals. Trained professionals in online marketing are in high demand for various sectors and industries.

As a student, 1st job opportunity is the most important factor that mostly drives career path as well as opportunity. Among various options to choose from, opting for digital marketing career not only helps in shaping your salary structure but also a career-defining factor. It also increases future opportunity in various sectors and industries.

Keeping in mind of above emerging opportunities  School of Business and Economics, Department of Management, AdamasUniversity has introduced a Bachelor of Business Administration in Digital Marketing. Various Specialized Courses are like :

  1. Digital Marketing
  2. Social Media Marketing
  3. E-Commerce
  4. Digital Supply Chain Management
  5. Customer Relationship Management in Digital age
  6. Cyber Security and Cyber Law
  7. Digital Business Strategy
  8. Data Mining and Intelligence
  9. Sales and Distribution in Digital Age.

A gateway to clean and green energy

India’s economic revival post the two-and-a-half-month lockdown period could be channelized into searching for cleaner sources of energy that would benefit both nature and its inhabitants. To start with, the central government should look for ways to utilize abundant solar energy available in most parts of the country. In this case, the focal point should be to energise the nearly 39,000 non-electrified healthcare centres as well as numerous primary and secondary schools in the Indian countryside.

As of now, the Indian government hands out heavy subsidies to the fossil fuels sector. Instead of this, in an effort to kick-start the much needed clean energy revolution, the government may transfer the subsidies to the renewable energy sector, thereby enabling it to take small strides that could lead to giant leaps in the coming decades. United Nations climate body chief Patricia Espinosa said on April 22, “With this restart, a window of hope and opportunity opens, an opportunity for nations to green their recovery packages and shape the 21st-century economy in ways that are clean, green, healthy, safe and more resilient”. In fact, India’s own energy research centres, the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) and Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW), echoed similar views. A research fellow at CEEW, Karthik Ganesan, said, “There is a phenomenal opportunity for India in re-thinking if there is a better way of spending these (coal and oil and gas) subsidies to make them investment-worthy”.

Utilization

The present realities exhibit that organization enrichments for limitless power have trebled over the last five years to Rs 9,930 crore in 2019 from Rs 3,224 crore in 2014, as it were, driven by India’s assurance of setting up plants that could help generate an estimated 175 Giga Watt (GW) by 2022, according to the CEED report. In comparison, India spent more than Rs 80,000 crore towards subsidies for the coal, oil and gas industry. It is, therefore, apparent that, at present, India is spending an enormous amount of money towards non-renewable energy sources, which needs to change soon. In fact, the subsidies for the non-renewable sources exceed by seven times when compared to the renewable sources. Unless this is reversed, it will be extremely difficult to promote clean energy in India.

As of now, 56% of India’s electricity needs are generated from coal, 36% from oil and gas while about 3% is obtained from cleaner sources. However, India has made rapid strides in terms of utilizing renewable sources of energy – Renewables now amount to around 20% of India’s total installed power capacity, up from just 13% in 2014.

A good time to promote the use of renewable energy is now, after the resumption of industrial activities, post removal of lockdown, in an effort to meet any shortfall through renewable energy. Decisions and strategies made now will define the future since the benefits from these decisions will be visible only after 1-2 decades from now. Therefore, judicious use of fossil fuels on one hand and aggressive promotion of renewables are a good way forward. 

Volatility of fossil fuels

Industries that are mostly run from power generated by coal and other fossil fuels had a period of nearly 10-15 years that were quite stressful. Case in point is the underperformance of the Indian coal-mining and coal-fired companies. In December 2018, Greenpeace reported an average loss of 10% per year from 2013, costing a total of Rs 25,000 crore in losses.

One among several research set-ups that study the usage and financial benefits of renewable energy source, Matt Gray from Carbon Tracker estimated the economic feasibility of countries that have invested their energy dependence on coal and also in order to recover from the effects of the lockdown imposed by COVID-19. In fact, he specifically cautions India against using coal to spur its industries back after the lockdown and cites a reason for it to support his claim. In India, 2% of the current 222 GW coal fleet is running at a loss; an additional 66 GW is in the pipeline anyway 23% of this will enter the market with a negative cash flow, the Carbon Tracker report said. Matt Gray’s report also adds, “51 per cent of operating coal power costs more to run than building new renewables”.

Setting up the renewable energy network

In order to effectively distribute the benefits of renewable energy, small units of solar power supply units may be supplied to small and medium scale industries as well as small residences in towns and cities. On the other hand, in remote rural areas of the country, electricity generated from solar cells could be used to power small rural schools, hospitals, etc. Although relatively higher initial capital costs tend to deter people from using solar or other renewable energy, funding for these may be allotted from government agencies as well as from Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) funds in order to popularize such schemes. In fact, massive funding schemes, called KUSUM (meant to promote solar pumps), have been launched in order to promote the use of solar power in far-reaching areas of the country.

Some caveats must also be mentioned which deal with strengthening the existing electricity grid so that the grids are able to absorb the introduction of electricity supply from renewable energy sources. Moreover, it may take at least a few years before tangible benefits from renewable energy are financially visible. In addition, adequate training needs to be provided to workers who would be at the forefront of this massive changeover from conventional energy sources to unconventional sources. Ultimately, these actions could help steer India towards a path of recovery, make the air cleaner and, make sure that the inhabitants may experience clean, breathable air in the recent future.

Worldwide coal use in power generation must fall 80% below the 2010 levels by 2030 in order to limit global temperature rise to 1.5°C, as per an examination conducted by the United Nation’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The hitherto unexpected benefits obtained from a prolonged near-global lockdown will go to a complete waste unless coal and fossil fuel usage is limited and more and more renewable energy sources are promoted at an aggressive rate. It would only be possible if more countries realise the benefits as well as the urgency of the situation in tackling the disastrous effects of global warming and, therefore, take necessary steps that can mitigate damages done to the environment from unabated use of fossil fuels.

Communication Management-Influence, persuade, manage and control the flow of communication

Commenting on language, Federico Fellini, the acclaimed Italian film director once said “A different language is a different vision of life”. The same goes for communication. An embodiment of human emotions manifested through diverse means and tools – advertisement, public relations (PR), corporate communications and so on. How can you control free-flowing human emotions? Like a bridge that tames a river to attain productive outcome, communication management controls the flow of information both online and offline through systematic planning, implementation and monitoring of all channels of intra and inter-organizational communication to achieve an efficient system of communication dissemination.

MBA in Communication Management program offered by the Department of Communication Management, Adamas University, Kolkata, trains its students on the ways to design corporate communication strategies and devising internal and external communications directives.  Our program is designed and delivered according to the 40:60 Educational Model, where the classroom teaching constitutes 40 per cent while the remaining 60 per cent is field-based training. How does our media education system cater to the dynamic world of communication? Let’s explore more.

As we are aware, Covid 19 has indeed impacted the communication and media ecosystem globally like never before. The revenue of traditional media houses is dwindling. Execution and administrative work will now mostly be done by artificial intelligence (AI). Clients are demanding from agencies creative insights and strategies. This adds to already existing conditions of increased noise, lesser attention span, media cacophony, diversified media, ever-increasing influencer list and the fast-evolving social media. The complexity of media ecosystem has just increased manifold.

The success of public relations or any communication professionals will depend on achieving measurable business impact. The pre-pandemic and post-pandemic expectations from industry and professionals may vary widely. Customer “sensitivity” that is undoubtedly is on an all-time high remains vigilant about the cause and statements from influencers and ambassadors of a brand. Here comes equipping our students with adequate and relevant skills. The MBA in Communication Management program promotes ethical consideration, compassionate outlook, and socially responsible approach among the learners. We mentor 24×7.  Online study materials, videos and exercises are available round the clock. Our well-entrenched network facilitates regular networking of students with distinguished industry professionals. Workshops and training sessions are regularly conducted by experts from the industry.  The learners participate in national and international seminars and conferences. Internships, industry visit and familiarization tours/visits to relevant facilities enhance their skills.

We believe in Experiential Learning – a process of learning through experience, and is more specifically defined as “learning through reflection on doing”.  Experiential learning, participative learning and problem-solving methodologies are used to nurture the leaders of tomorrow.

Our Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) enable efficient interactions among students, faculty members and other stakeholders. Likewise, through Capacity-building, we “develop and strengthen” the skills, instincts, abilities, processes and resources that organizations and communities need to survive, adapt, and thrive in a fast-changing world. “As a part of Skill development, we actively (1) identify skill gaps, and (2) develop and hone those skills.

Awareness of trends in technology as a skill refers to being mindful of the technology that is recently becoming popular and is readily accepted in the market or industry.  Ideal technology trend awareness skills mean a person’s ability to either correspond to the industry-wide technology adoption or surpass it, which is our endeavour is to inculcate knowledge of technology in our students.

Our focus is research-oriented. The communications industry is dynamic and ever-evolving. Our focus includes research relating to situations and techniques to address the same.

Industry Orientation sits at the core of our courses at MBA in Communication Management. Many of our mentors and advisory board members are respected figures in the industry. Internships and industry-sponsored projects by students are compulsory. Our trainees are continuously exposed to the best practices, points of view and perspectives.

Entrepreneurship is the spirit of the day, and our program actively encourages the objective of entrepreneurship that inculcates competence to succeed in the market and confidence to create new ventures, and jobs in the economy.

Our constant endeavour is to advance the agenda of Global Standards and Outreach. Our curriculum follows best-in-class global standards. We have a mix of faculty members from academia and the industry with extensive international exposure. International tie-ups and regular connections through specially designed events are our speciality.

Whether its Consumer Behaviour, Brand Management, Communication Management & Experiential Marketing or Entertainment Media Revenues or any subjects that you choose from the bouquet of the subjects that we offer – our program comes with courses like Human Resource Management, Economics, Finance, Information Technology and Soft skills to transform you into a complete professional.

Our placements and internships include compulsory industry internship. Reputed news organizations from across the country and abroad hire the passed-out trainees. The salaries offered to passed-out trainees are at par with the best in the industry.

What are you waiting for? Join MBA in Communication Management and experience the world of difference.

#AU4CHANGE: A SUCCESSFUL EXPERIMENT WITH PARTICIPATORY AND COLLECTIVE LEARNING

Covid-19 is no longer just a virus-induced infectious disease. It is much more than that. In fact, it wouldn’t be an overstatement if we were to dub it as an unprecedented phenomenon. While acknowledging its disastrous consequences, we should have no qualms in accepting that it has been the biggest catalyst of instantaneous changes that we have encountered in our daily lives. As the second wave of the disease continues to ravage India, our lifestyles have turned upside down.

The sweeping changes due to Covid-19 have gripped all areas of human life. The field of academics has been one of the biggest areas of change. The nature of the virus is such that it requires people to stay indoors and interact with each other virtually. Thus, technology-mediated virtual learning has become the alternative for physical learning. Classroom-centric learning has given way to app-based remote learning.

Although, online interactions constitute the only way to continue learning at this juncture, the absence of personal touches and the monotony of continuously sitting in front of the computers have created a peculiar negative inertia among learners. Across the world, the euphoria that was associated with online learning towards the beginning of the pandemic is hardly there. Teachers, therefore, are having a tough time maintaining the interest level of the learners.

Like every other academic across the globe, yours truly, being a humble media teacher at the School of Media and Communication (SOMC) under the Kolkata-based Adamas University (AU), was finding it an uphill task to retain learners’ attention during online classes. It was contingent on me to try an alternative mechanism. This is where I thought I would pass the buck to the learners themselves so that the intensity and quantum of their involvement could be significantly enhanced.

On an experimental basis, I applied this decided reversal of roles for a course entitled ‘Contemporary Media Issues’, which is taught to the fourth-semester students of Bachelor of Arts [B.A. (Honours)] in Journalism and Mass Communication (J.M.C.). According to the deal that I had with the students, the entire class of 45 students was divided into three groups. Each group was given the responsibility to take care of two modules out of a total of six that were included in the course curriculum. Each group has a name, a captain and a vice-captain. Therefore, on a given instructional day, the captain of the assigned group would pick up a topic from the two decided modules and initiate the discussion. It is worthwhile to mention that the captain of a group is responsible for informing the topic in advance to me so that I can also prepare accordingly. During the class, each member of the assigned group would speak for a certain amount of time so that the entire topic is covered in a nutshell. I would also add my inputs to the discussion and invite members from other groups to contribute their ideas.

Initially, the quality of discussions wasn’t up to the mark and many learners couldn’t express their ideas owing to an inability to speak English. However, with sustained motivations, learners slowly started coming out of their shells. With some confidence, now I can say that the classes are a lot more interactive than what was the case earlier.

Additionally, each group is responsible for finding out all the resources pertaining to their assigned modules and distributing the same amongst all the learners. Not only does it enhance the researching skills of the learners, it also significantly adds to their repertoire of knowledge.

This technique had a significant bearing on enhancing the collective attendance of the learners. Additionally, all of them felt responsible for the course thereby inspiring collective learning. Learning essentially needs to be a democratic process and this procedure significantly added to the democratic fervour.

Participatory and group learning is the order of the day. As a teacher, it was my honest attempt to introduce the same at my school.

While depression among learners is at an all-time high subject to an uncertain future and reduced career opportunities, it is equally true that teachers have an inescapable responsibility to uplift their spirit. I am sure that a little bit of innovation can go a long way in reviving the confidence of learners on the teaching-learning process. The rest, they say, is history.