Create your future in Augmented Reality, Virtual reality and Mixed Reality

Augmented and virtual reality add a new dimension to technology-enabled teaching and learning. 

Through the use of augmented reality, we have the opportunity to see fragments of virtually inserted visuals, video, music, or GPS data and information superimposed over a view of the real environment. The GPS location on your smartphone is probably the most well-known example of augmented reality. In addition, you can have an experience of augmented reality by using other apps such as: 

  • Froggipedia
  • Augment
  • Jigspace
  • View
  • Quiver

A complete submersion into the world of computer-generated reality is what is meant by the term “virtual reality.” Although it is not always attainable at the moment, the ideal form of virtual reality will comprise the simultaneous stimulation of all five senses, namely sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. However, this is not always the case at the moment. The utilisation of virtual reality simulations can be beneficial to industries such as tourism, shopping, education, healthcare, and Industry 4.0. There are a plethora of virtual reality (VR) products currently available, including: 

  • Oculus Go
  • HTC Vive
  • Virtual Reality for the PlayStation®
  • The Hololens from Microsoft
  • Google Cardboard/daydream view

A combination of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality is known as Mixed Reality (MR). Virtual reality (MR) is a technology that combines your vision of the real world with computer-generated or digitally-created images. In addition to this, it makes it easier to anchor and interact with things that have been virtually inserted into the area that you are in. Because MR and AR are now located in such close proximity to one another, this proximity may lead to some confusion. A form of augmented reality that is both more engaging and more interactive is called mixed reality (MR). The items found in Hybrid Reality are more accurate representations of their respective real-world applications. Take for example the Hololens app, which is considered a hybrid or mixed reality. 

Microsoft has designed the Hololens HMD (Head Mounted Display) with advanced sensors that detect your interaction within a mixed environment. It analyses how you interact with the digital data present in your actual view environment. The Hololens is an example of a holographic device used for mixed reality. Other Immersive devices include the Acer Windows Mixed Reality Headset and the HP Windows Mixed Reality Headset Developer Edition. 

Figure: AR image
Figure: AR image

The Hololens is also considered as holographic device. Other Immersive devices include the Acer Windows Mixed Reality Headset and the HP Windows Mixed Reality Headset Developer Edition. These HMDs are opaque and completely block out the outside world. In addition, they use a camera for tracking and surveillance purposes.

Hybrid Reality can be utilized for educational purposes, such as in the fields of mechanics, medicine, Biotechnology etc. It aids in worker assistance by providing clear instructions.

Figure: Mixed reality in Microsoft hololens
Figure: Mixed reality in Microsoft hololens

It interacts appropriately with the real-world scenario and generates superior solutions and practises.

AI and Metaverse: An Important Integration of Technology!

AI and Metaverse have the intention of driving and integrating various virtual transformation technologies. In addition, the future of the Metaverse is a hot issue of discussion among specialists in the field of technology. The Metaverse is a universe of virtual reality that enables user interactions by making use of a wide range of technologies, such as AI, augmented reality, virtual reality, and so on.

In addition, users are able to interact with three-dimensional digital items as well as virtual avatars by making use of a variety of technologies and solutions. AI and the Metaverse collaborate to bring out breakthroughs and advancements that herald the beginning of a new era of reality. Bloomberg predicts that the market for the Metaverse will reach $783.30 billion by the year 2030, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13.10 percent. According to the findings obtained by McKinsey, fifty percent of respondents stated that their organisations had already incorporated AI in at least one aspect of company operations. According to a study conducted by Deloitte, forty percent of employees report that their companies have a comprehensive AI strategy. Artificial intelligence (AI), augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), fifth-generation wireless (5G) networks, and blockchain are all expected to work together to create a virtual reality within the Metaverse, which is a primary component of Industry 5.0.

The term “Metaverse” is derived from the combination of two words: “Meta,” which refers to transcendence or virtuality, and “verse,” which is a contraction of the word “Universe.” To put it another way, the Metaverse is a digital reality that, by employing a wide range of technological methods, recreates the conditions of the physical world. In addition to this, it creates a virtual space for users by utilising various technologies such as virtual reality, augmented reality, artificial intelligence, and so on. In addition to this, it brings together the digital and real worlds in order to provide users with the ability to purchase and sell solutions, produce things, engage with people and locations, and so on. As a consequence, the following is a list of the primary Metaverse levels:

  • Infrastructure: The data centres, central processing units, graphics processing units, cloud computing, and other technologies are used to build the infrastructure and environment of the metaverse.
  • Human Interface: Human Interface also encourages people to interact with the virtual world by utilising cutting-edge technologies in their experience. The experience can be improved, for example, by using mobile phones, smartwatches, smart glasses, and other types of wearable technology.
  • Decentralization: In addition, the Metaverse manages massive data collections, which necessitates the use of a decentralised approach to problem solving. Edge computing, blockchain, microservices, and other similar technologies all offer options for the processing and examination of data.
  • Computing in Three Dimensions: Three-dimensional computing makes it easier to digitalize Metaverse products, services, and solutions. In addition to this, it makes Metaverse interactions and activities much simpler and more effective.
  • The Creator Economy: As the popularity of the Metaverse continues to rise, it drives creators, developers, and service providers to provide improved virtual solutions.
  • Experience: Artificial intelligence, virtual reality, augmented reality, and extended reality, as well as other technologies, are used to design the functionalities of the Metaverse in order to offer its users a one-of-a-kind experience.

What role does AI play in the Metaverse?

The purpose of artificial intelligence is to facilitate a wide range of Metaverse functions. In addition to this, it makes it easier for users to access a variety of virtual world environments. In addition to this, it helps users create content and promotes human engagement with other users while also providing support virtually.

Integrations of many types of reality, including augmented reality, virtual reality, and mixed reality, are what AI and the Metaverse are all about. AI also broadens the possibilities of the Metaverse by enabling users and businesses to produce, purchase, and sell a wide variety of products, services, and solutions. This, in turn, creates new opportunities. In addition to this, it would encourage users to work together with both other users and businesses in order to broaden their scope of available prospects.

AI not only enables the virtual world to deploy a variety of services but also enables the Metaverse to do so by combining the virtual world with NLP, computer vision, and neural interface. Because of this, artificial intelligence plays a significant part in the Metaverse, which provides dependability and enhances performance for a more satisfying experience.

In addition to this, the building of translation systems for new AI models and virtual assistants is a necessary step in the process of developing AI for the Metaverse. In order for the Metaverse to be realized, it is necessary for AI to reach its full potential and become reliable in people’s everyday lives. In addition to this, it claims to give pictures, sounds, and sensations that are extremely lifelike.

AI and ML for a better future

Have you ever considered about what motivates artificial intelligence programmes like Tony Stark’s JARVIS or the common man’s Alexa, Google Assistant, or Siri? These programmes can answer your calls and help you make decisions, but have you ever wondered what motivates them? In what ways does their brain operate? The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning is the straightforward response to each and every one of your questions (ML). The mechanical brains are controlled by artificial intelligence, which attempts to simulate human intellect so that they can perform like a human brain. With more and more research being done on AI and ML, there is the potential for AI and ML to assist in training computers to make decisions on their own, which will eventually make our lives easier by reducing the amount of work we have to perform. 

This article, which was meticulously researched and penned with the intention of depicting the future reach of AI and ML in India, was created with the goal of assisting students in understanding how this subject will be advantageous to them if they decide to pursue it. 

The potential applications of artificial intelligence in India are still in the process of being adopted, but the technology is gradually being put to use to find intelligent solutions to modern problems in almost all of the country’s most important industries, including agriculture, healthcare, education and infrastructure, transportation, cyber security, banking, manufacturing, business, hospitality, and entertainment. Readers who are interested in pursuing a course in artificial intelligence can find helpful information in this article. Candidates will gain some insight into the potential of artificial intelligence in India if they read this article and consider its contents. 

Scope of AI in India 

Both artificial intelligence and machine learning have a promising future in India and an immense potential to alter every area of the economy for the benefit of society. Artificial intelligence and machine learning have a bright future in India. AI is an umbrella term that incorporates a variety of helpful technologies, such as self-improving algorithms, machine learning, pattern recognition, and large amounts of data. Soon, there will not be a single business or market segment in India that is immune to the effects of this powerful instrument. This is one of the reasons why there is a growing demand for online courses in artificial intelligence in India. 

Scope of AI and ML in Education Sector 

By utilizing a variety of AI applications such as text translation systems, real-time message to speech, automating mundane and also repeated tasks such as taking presence, automating grading, and also customizing the learning journey based on ability, comprehension, and also experience, artificial intelligence can help our instructors be more effective. Within the purview of Artificial Intelligence education and learning is the consideration of the prospect of utilizing AI-powered rating machines that are able to evaluate solutions in an objective manner. This is being carried out in college and university settings in a step-by-step fashion. Real-time text-to-speech synthesis and text translation are two further AI-based applications in the educational sector. 

The Role of AI and ML in the Development of Chatbots 

The combination of chatbots in the digital framework or availability via the IVRS system education domain can be transformative in a country as diverse as India. They can be educated on the subject matter, and a large percentage of the students’ doubts can be answered quickly. This reduces the current workload of educators, allowing them to focus on more creative tasks. 

The Integration of AI and ML into the Automated Grading System 

On a more global scale, methods of machine learning such as Natural Language Processing could be used for automated grading of assessments on systems such as E-PATHSHALA, SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds), and DIKSHA. This would apply not only to inquiries that are subjective but also to those that are objective. This is because of the National Education Policy 2019, which places an emphasis on computer and internet literacy. 

The Role of AI and ML in the Healthcare Industry 

The healthcare industry in India is one of the most rapidly developing and competitive markets in the world. There is a dearth of doctors and services, including competent nurses and technicians, as well as infrastructure. This is one of the primary issues, but there are many others as well, including affordability and accessibility. As a result of the majority of high-quality medical facilities in India being situated in close proximity to tier 1 and tier 2 cities, access to healthcare in India is not uniformly distributed across the country physically. Aside from that, as Artificial Intelligence develops, there will be an increase in efficiency, which will lead to a reduction in the overall cost of medical treatment. 

Because AI is able to process vast volumes of data in a short amount of time, it can be of assistance in the creation of medical equipment, as well as in design and innovation. Having a system that is enabled with AI helps to eliminate medical errors and increases overall productivity. Artificial intelligence has the potential to both circumvent access barriers and provide a solution to the accessibility problem by applying early detection followed by suitable diagnostic conclusions. 

AI and ML in the Agriculture Sector 

In India, agriculture is a major source of income for many people. Traditional farming methods pose a slight challenge for Indian farmers. Thermal imaging cameras can be used to continuously monitor agricultural land to ensure that plants receive adequate water. When it comes to selecting the right crop and the optimum method of sowing, this tool can help you get the most out of your land and save money. 

As a result, improved insect control preparation can benefit from the application of artificial intelligence to predict behaviour and investigate parasites. Artificial intelligence-assisted anticipating modelling can be effective for delivering more detailed demand-supply details and for predicting the needs of farmers in terms of agricultural produce. 

Automated Vehicles Using AI and ML 

In the transportation industry, artificial intelligence offers a lot of potential. Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to be useful in a few specific contexts. Since its invention in 1922, autopilot has been used to keep ships, planes, and spacecraft on course. Self-driving cars are another field of research. Self-driving automobiles are being researched by companies around the world, including India. The use of artificial intelligence and machine learning has been prevalent in the design of these automobiles from the beginning. Self-driving cars, according to experts, will have various advantages, such as reducing pollution and eliminating human error from driving. 

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning for a Smart Home 

We are surrounded by artificial intelligence. Most of the time, we don’t even realize we’re interacting with devices powered by artificial intelligence. As an example, we routinely use OK GOOGLE, ALEXA, or CORTANA to execute a variety of chores by simply speaking to them. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning are used by these intelligent assistants for voice recognition. Learning from the user’s commands improves their productivity. You may ask a question, play a song, and buy anything online all with the help of this clever assistant. 

Applied Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Cybersecurity 

Cybersecurity is another area where AI is being applied. Many companies have to deal with a lot of data. A security system is required, for example, in the banking industry or government entities that maintain vast databases containing the personal information of citizens. An good example of this topic is Cognitive Artificial Intelligence (CAI). Additionally, it helps analysts make better judgments by detecting, analysing, and reporting on hazards. 

Machine Learning formulae and Deep Learning networks are used to improve and strengthen the AI over time. As a framework and central point of control for safety and security responses, IBM Resilient is an open and agnostic platform. 

In the Manufacturing Industry, AI and ML 

The industrial sector is a popular target market for AI-based firms from India. In order to assist the manufacturing industry flourish, these companies are developing AI-based solutions. Various types of robots are controlled by artificial intelligence in the workplace. The ability to examine data and forecast the future is a unique AI technology. 

Using this AI capabilities, companies may estimate future supply and demand based on data from prior years’ sales or market surveys, allowing them to make faster decisions and better use of existing products. Artificial intelligence (AI) will be widely used in manufacturing in the future years. 

Know the Game: Augment your career with Skills, Competencies, and Expertise in the niche segment of Health Geo-Informatics

The WHO has taken pledge to help countries and partners in making informed public health choices more quickly and to spread geospatial knowledge throughout the organization by connecting maps, apps, data, and people. Because of this change in emphasis, organizations all around the world are depending more and more on location intelligence to make smarter public health decisions. Human services and health geoinformatics occupations are in greater demand than ever.

John Snow’s ground-breaking work serves as an example of the effectiveness of mapping and geographic systems in addressing the cholera pandemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a long history of analyzing spatial distribution and risk factor patterns, identifying, preventing, and controlling diseases, and enhancing the effectiveness of public health initiatives. Making timely and trustworthy judgments that have the potential to save many lives is made possible by using GIS to connect spatial representation and public health planning. To name a few, 15 of the 17 health-related SDGs rely on GIS, for example, by monitoring air, water quality, and sanitation, neglected tropical diseases (malaria, guinea worm, snake bites), Polio, as well as health emergencies. Geoinformatics is defined as an academic discipline or career of working with geographical data for better understanding and interpretation of human interaction with the earth’s surface. It encompasses several technologies, approaches, processes, and methods to interpret and discourse spatial questions that necessitate spatial sense to address it. ESRI comments that “Hundreds of thousands of organizations in virtually every field are using GIS to make maps that communicate, perform analysis, share information, and solve complex problems around the world. This is changing the way the world works.”

Geoinformatics – Future Science
Figure 1. Geoinformatics – Future Science (Conceptualized and compiled by Dr. Anu Rai)

With its underlying capacity, Geoinformatics is emerging as a billion-dollar industry and offers lucrative opportunities to its professionals and trainers. In order to promote better public health planning and decision-making, geospatial technology, namely Health Geoinformatics, offers spatial representation of data. It is a niche segment of Geoinformatics and has significant uses in the fields of medicine and global health, but many nations currently limited or no access to these advantages in order to improve their health information systems. However, in post pandemic era, WHO and partner countries aggressively acknowledge and recommend the application of Geoinformatics in addressing public health issues.  WHO has taken pledge to help countries and partners in making informed public health choices more quickly and to spread geospatial knowledge throughout the organization by connecting maps, apps, data, and people. The WHO GIS Centre for Health wants to have a direct and long-lasting influence on the public by increasing its engagement with partners. Supporting geospatial data and analytics to enhance adherence and stewardship with WHO Standard Operating Procedures for maps and Web GIS applications are a few examples of the specific services offered by WHO. The purpose of such services is to improve national, regional, and analytical data as well as the health information system in order to boost the Member States’ and Partners’ effective use of GIS. Because of this change in emphasis, organizations all around the world are depending more and more on location intelligence to make smarter public health decisions. Human services and health geoinformatics occupations are in greater demand than ever. In order to forecast and evaluate industry trends utilizing a range of data and pro-actively build solutions and messaging to address important issues, drivers, and challenges, health GIS analysts or public health solution managers work closely with teams in varied domains of public health, human services, hospitals, insurance, managed health care systems, and environmental health. Despite corporate and public jobs and entrepreneurial opportunities, GIS analysts are highly engaged in investigating, understanding, and developing new businesses in areas underserved or not currently served with GIS applications in the health and human services space. This creates a new field of opportunity for work with product development as a customer advocate for the requirements of the health and human services sector.

In my academic career as an educator of Geography and Geoinformatics, I have often noticed curiosity among youngsters about career opportunities with the Health Geography and Geoinformatics, irrespective of the discipline and domain of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees they hold. I would answer that if you are interested to play with the nuts and bolts of spatial health science, the Post Graduate Program on Geography and Geoinformatics is a good option for you. You may select diverse fields of Health Geoinformatics depending on the expertise of the domain varying from map making to app development. You can also opt for jobs in Public Health firms that include diverse skill-based jobs in the field of marketing development and testing and even entrepreneurship. Research-based course experience also opens huge job prospects in development and planning commission, scientists in HRD, and other research institutions in India and abroad. Application of neo-geographical tools, statistical algorithms, machine learning, multi-criterion decision-making techniques, computer-programming, SQLs, text-analytics and learning and practices of GIS and statistical packages that enable GI Scientists to solve the multifaceted real-life problem has opened extensive career opportunities to practitioners of geoinformatics in the field of public health data science as well. Health data scientists, data analysts, big data analysts, spatial data analysts, etc. are some of the lucrative jobs paying high salary packages to deserving candidates. So, if spatial logic of health attracts you, Health Geoinformatics is the best option to augment your career with skills, competencies, and expertise.

For such more examples you may also visit the sites of:

Career Prospects in Cyber security

Multinational companies are spending fortunes to protect and secure their systems, sensitive data, networks, and privacies from cybercriminals. After the pandemic, with proliferation of internet use and technology use, these cyber attacks become more refined and inventive, forcing the organizations to depend on the proficiency of the cybersecurity professionals.

As per CyberSeek report, around half million cybersecurity professionals are required to fulfill the gap. It is best time to become a cybersecurity professional because of this rising demand and small talent pool. There are some lucrative job opportunities available for those persons with relative technology focused skill. Even if someone does not have prior experience in cyber security domain, getting a job in this domain is possible. With the increase of frequency in cyber-attacks, almost all the organizations are recruiting to defend against these kinds of threats. There are various career paths available for the students who interested in making the career out of cyber security professional.

Like machine learning and data science, Cyber security career paths are also multidirectional as well as non-linear. Once someone enters the domain, his/her career can go in any direction. Along with that there are also feeder roles like risk analyst, software engineer, network administrator which can be used as a beginner level cyber security professional.

When anyone thinks of cybersecurity jobs, generally the first think comes into our mind is someone trying penetrate the networks or systems which is basically penetration testing or ethical hacking. But this notion is nothing but the tip of an iceberg. Cybersecurity is bigger than that. It contains various sub categories and specialization and all of these can be broadly categories in to two parts i.e., Infrastructure management and Security and Risk Management.

Infrastructure Security

Networking infrastructures are extremely important to multinational business organizations. Cybercriminals can readily access and exploit sensitive resources and information if they are not properly protected. Cybersecurity specialists must design, firewalls, virtual private networks, application security, and many more to mitigate security and data breaches.

Common job roles for the protection of infrastructure are given below:

  • Security Operations Center (SOC) analyst
  • Security infrastructure engineer
  • Cybersecurity engineer
  • Security architect
  • Cloud security engineer

Security and Risk Management

Security and risk management actually constitute ensuring that businesses follow security regulations and procedures, as well as undertaking risk assessment to determine security flaws in tangible infrastructure, business applications, and data. Penetration testing and compliance are useful roles in this niche. In fact, compliance has become so critical that some industries even have entire squad devoted entirely to data governance and privacy protection.

Common job roles for Security and Risk Management are given below:

  • Penetration tester
  • Data privacy and security analyst
  • Security compliance analyst
  • Information security analyst
  • Cyber Security Incident Response Analyst

Skill requirement for cybersecurity

Even though cybersecurity jobs may appear to be extremely specialized and computational-intensive, these skilled persons have the know-how of various different but interrelated domains. It is expected that these professionals have some specific skill sets in both hard skill sets which are scripting, system administration and networking and soft skill sets which are creative thinking and communication. Basically, one needs to constantly reinvent and learn upcoming technologies.

Technical Skills:

  • In terms of essential cybersecurity skills, Networking tops the list. If one wants to aspire to become a penetration tester or network security engineer, that person needs to fully grasp underlying mechanisms various networking protocols and principles.
  • Most network components and intrusion prevention systems run Linux as their operating system. Learning Linux helps to collect security data and perform security toughening.
  • System administration is indispensable for cyber security specialists. Can user, for example, dictate what happens after downloading malware on windows operating system or extract files from a pc without knowing the log in credentials?
  • To detect security loopholes in networks or security devices, it is necessary to have an outlook like a cybercriminal. White hat hackers try to safeguard data from both outside and inside threats by identifying vulnerabilities in systems that could be reduced. White hats are mainly utilized by the intended system’s owner and are handsomely compensated for their efforts. Their practice is not illegal since it is performed with the approval of the system owner.
  • To become a cybersecurity practitioner, you wouldn’t need to be an extremely skilled programmer, but you must handle situations with an algorithmic mindset. Scripting is a wonderful way to learn the underlying working principles of hardware and software.
  • Even though you wouldn’t want to become a programmer, it’s important to understand enough to read code.
  • To run malware analysis, cybersecurity professionals ought to be accustomed with all virtual machine platforms.

 Soft Skills

  • Communication: You will need to invest a considerable amount of time training end users on how to set up their machines or implement security measures.
  • New security hazards emerge all the time, so you must be able to continuously acquire new skills and techniques.
  • On a regular basis, cybersecurity entails finding solutions to issues. If you really do not like to indulge in solving problems, a profession in cybersecurity is probably not just for you.

 Top Cybersecurity Job roles: From beginner level to executive level

There are many high-paying, versatile full-time job vacancies in the industry. Due to the sheer world – wide scarcity of skilled talent pool, numerous recruiters are offering entry-level salaries ranging from Rs. ₹10L to ₹12L. Cybersecurity directors and chief information security officers (CISOs), for example, can obtain more than ₹90L per year.

  • Cybersecurity Analyst: Security Operations Centre (SOC) analyst concentrates on the front-line attack detection. Cybersecurity analysts work in dedicated security hubs and must be competent in a variety of areas such as log analysis, Wireshark, malware analysis, and programming. A SOC analyst’s primary responsibility is to monitor network data. This particular job role has the potential to be used as a fantastic launchpad for next level of the roles.
  • Penetration Tester: Penetration testers, also known as white hat hackers, are one of the most in-demand job positions in the cybersecurity industry. They are in charge of identifying and analyzing security flaws in organizational IT infrastructure along with that a penetration tester are asked to prepare a detailed report about their observations and procedures. Penetration testing is not a low-wage job rather it attracts one of the most handsome salaries in the industry.
  • Cybersecurity Engineer: Cybersecurity engineers, like software engineers, create technologies that protect computer architecture. Their commitment is to foresee network security loopholes, which necessitates the installation of firewalls, the use of encryption software, and the revamping of patches. A few years of experience and a strong command in various scripting languages are required to become a cybersecurity engineer.      

Career growth in VLSI and Embedded System Design for B.Tech in Electronics and Communication Engineering students after Pandemic

Learning areas of this course:

All students must learn advanced skills in high demand like VLSI and Embedded System Design and apply these skills to get a job. These transferable in-demand skills are so essential after post-pandemic. ECE offers new career opportunities to its engineers. All of our essential services are now projected to a new level. During a pandemic, we are shifting away from using offline platforms and toward online platforms. We are accustomed to using e-commerce to buy and sell goods or transfer funds via online platforms, and there is a large employment opportunity. Use of Embedded system design can be found in every industry, from medicine to manufacturing. An embedded system is a combination of hardware and software that performs a specific task within a specified time frame which means it should perform only one specific task. The main advantage of using an embedded system in an application is that it reduces the size and cost of the task while also improving its reliability and efficiency. Students studying Electronics and Communication Engineering will be able to find jobs in e-commerce by preparing themselves with the necessary skill sets.

Because of the pandemic, our demand for biomedical electronics has increased. We must develop more biomedical instruments and devices to ensure our survival in the healthcare system. There will be a huge opportunity to find work in the field of biomedical. Because these domains require knowledge of circuit theory, semiconductor device, analog circuits, digital circuits, and understanding of VLSI and Embedded System design, they are mostly open to students with an ECE background. As a result, they have more job opportunities.


Unique Aspects and strength of VLSI and Embedded System design:

Working in the core electronics industry is the dream of every ECE engineering students. VLSI and Embedded system design are two of the most important industries for an electronics engineer. However, in order to find work in these industries, one must be highly skilled, with a solid understanding of the fundamentals and a hands-on approach. The industry expects engineers to be familiar with industry standard EDA tools and fabrication but fabrication is beyond the scope of B.Tech course structure. Using Make in India, Digital India and Start-up India programme thrives to the Electronics System Design and Manufacturing (ESDM) sector in India, many manufacturers are relocating to the country to establish their businesses. Making India a Semiconductor Hub for ESDM, the government invites applications for the Chips to Startup (C2S) Program. The Indian government has approved a comprehensive programme to develop an Integrated Circuit (IC)/ ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) design by using VLSI system design in the country. Many Start-ups and MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise) are now interested to progress in this field.


Every year, India spends billions of dollars to bring electronic consumer devices to the country. VLSI and Embedded systems play a significant role in consumer electronics. As a result, VLSI and embedded systems are emerging domains in India. There will be a significant skill gap in these areas. Every year, India invested billions of dollars to import electronic consumer devices. VLSI and Embedded systems are important in consumer service electronics. As a result, VLSI and embedded systems are growing in popularity in World. There will be a significant skill gap in these following areas.

  1. SoC Desien
  2. ASIC Design
  3. Reusable IP Core(s) Design and Development 
  4. Application Oriented Working Prototype of ASICs and SoCs
  5. ASIC and FPGA Research and Development

With the emerging rise in the VLSI industry our processing speed increases to Intel Pentium P5 processor to recent core i9 processor and our mobile phone processor become thinner (4nm) to make mobile phone energy efficient and provide better performance.

Every new process node is evaluated based on three key metrics: power, performance, and area (PPA). Designers strive to balance and improve the three areas, but cost and time-to-market (collectively PPACT) are taken into account when chipmakers choose between process node options.

Industry 4.0 jobs are available through VLSI and Embedded System design. Smart homes are built with IoT and Embedded system design technology and smart electronics appliances such as a smart refrigerator, air conditioner, TV, microwave, and washing machine that can be controlled remotely via smartphone. IoT and Embedded system design technology play an important role in healthcare.

Students having the following skills for companies like Intel, Qualcomm, Samsung, HCL Technologies, L&T etc.

  • Programming skills like Verilog/VHDL and
  • Exposure to VLSI Industry standard tools for ASIC and FPGA design
  • Embedded Programming skill like C, C++, Java, Embedded C++ and Python
  • Clear understanding of analog and digital circuit analysis and design.

If you want to work in technology, you must have certain skills. You must think like an engineer and learn engineering skills. Contrast “engineering labour” with “engineer.” If you believe you are an engineer, you must prove it before the rest of the world believes you. And proving it is difficult. However, believe me when I say that the VLSI Industry is in desperate need of Engineers. We have a demand, but no resources. We can find engineering labour but not engineers. It’s oversaturated for people who consider themselves engineers but perform engineering labour work. It has a bright future for those who are connected to technology and willing to learn on a regular basis. The future exists in all domains (analog – because world is analog, Digital – all computer works on binary, Mix-signal – because we are moving from integration of Real world and Computer world in form of AI, ML, AR-VR).

Future relocation area Memory that is fast and compact high-speed, low-power processor design.  Every individual must now determine what skills they possess and where they can contribute and whether or not the industry is saturated will be determined by this.

Careers in Video Gaming Industry in Post-Pandemic World

When it comes to video games, there are a lot of speculations about them being addictive and detrimental. However, in this article, we will look at video gaming as a storytelling medium and most importantly how media and technology students can be a part of this industry and what it holds from the perspective of getting a successful career. Video games have always served as recreational entertainment tools. Most video games are played on consoles and there has been a lot of development in the gaming industry with more youth players engaging with video games. Moreover, Ed-tech companies are now investing heavily into animation and gamification, and also India overall is becoming the next international player in the domain of video game development with many game studios entering this market every year. As per statistics, the video gaming industry contributes more than 90 billion dollars worldwide. While in India, the video gaming industry has crossed more than the 1.1-billion-dollar mark.  

Historically, gaming was more of recreational activity and was solely consumed for entertainment. This very demand for electronic digital entertainment grew exponentially and led to the foundation of big tech gaming companies. Primarily there are two types of gaming organizations one is the development studio and another one is the publishing studio. Game development companies are studios, where games are developed, while game publishing firms are companies that market, publish and distribute games across the world market. Over the last 20 years, the video gaming industry has grown multiple folds with new categories of companies coming up every year. Now the question is, why should you work for the video gaming industry? The answer is simply because video games have garnered a massive audience base, governments of various countries are now looking to innovate education through gamification and more gaming companies are coming up, providing alternative job opportunities in the entertainment industry. The fan base of popular video games can be compared with the fan base of the film industry.  

With that being said, we might wonder what does it take to work in such a lucrative industry? What is the particular set of skills required to develop or publish games? Let us try and decode the specific requirements one is expected to have to work in the various departments of video gaming companies. When it comes to developing games there are two ways, one is technical and the other is non-technical. Under the technical set of skills, candidates are expected to know programming and scripting. Video games are made using game engines and most popular game engines require programming knowledge. Hence, it is always advisable to know basic programming to operate with a game engine. Popular game engines like Unity and Unreal are based on C# (pronounced as C-sharp) and C++ respectively. Programming knowledge is the core technical element of game development. Now coming to the non-technical area, particularly the front-end design and the artistic elements of a game. Skills in digital illustration, graphic designing, and creating UI icons based on graphic and vector illustration software such as Adobe Illustrator, and Photoshop, will come in handy. Apart from still graphics, games also need animation and motion graphics. Animation and graphics are further categorized under 2D and 3D. For 2D animation, it is recommended to learn software such as Krita, OpenToonz, and even Blender. For 3D modelling, software such as 3DS Max and Blender comes in handy and for 3D animation, it is recommended to have skills in Maya and Blender. Thus, the primary requirement to develop games will need skills in coding, 3D/2D, and animation. Furthermore, different games have different narrative elements and require narrative-building elements such as content, script, story, character, and even voice-overs. One can choose to become a game content writer, a motion capture artist, a voice-over artist, a music and sound artist, etc. Gaming companies also hire for other management and admin positions including, HR, Marketing & Sales, Public Relations, Client Servicing, Digital Marketing, Community Building, Customer Acquisition, IT and ERP, Business Development, Etc. These positions are also available in video game publishing companies. 
To become a game developer, one has to have patience and a focused set of skills. The video game industry is also an equally competitive market and is entirely content-driven. So far there is no recorded monopoly in this sector and thus providing ample opportunities for growth. Anyone can be a game developer even those belonging from non-engineering and technology backgrounds. Digital gaming has come a long way ever since the early 60s, when it was first discovered in a physics lab, and continues to evolve further with integrated technologies such as Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Data Analytics, etc, hence any additional skills in these domains will be helpful for a successful career in gaming. Personally, I will always recommend anyone, who wishes to be a part of game development, learn game engines and begin with simple ones. In India, the video gaming industry is rising every year with new companies coming up in every Indian city. The Covid pandemic itself hastened the process of making most Indians digital converts, with a major number of users actively playing games on their mobile devices. Thus, Indian companies are now slowly realizing the full potential of digital gaming, becoming. Fortunately, for India, the biggest advantage is its massive youth population, which contributes immensely to the overall target audience count in mobile gaming. This huge market is very lucrative for a lot of foreign gaming studios that have started expanding into India and are actively hiring candidates from the local population for content localization and distribution. Game giants such as UBI Soft, Rockstar Games, Epic Games, and Unity Technologies have already made their presence in our country, as they have partnered with many independent game developers from the country and are helping them in publishing their games. Game-based marketing and promotion and gamification will possibly become the trend in post-pandemic India in sectors of Edtech, OTT, and E-commerce. 

Career Opportunities Post Pandemic in Human Resource Management

The COVID-19 Pandemic had been a disaster for the entire humankind. Over the period of two years, we had a horrific experience with huge loss of life, economic slowdown, and social dissociation – a distressful journey indeed. However, as darkness ends with the dawn, the COVID-19 Pandemic is expectedly going to end with new rays of hopes and aspirations. This pandemic has unfolded many new scopes and has paved the avenues for new learning and employment opportunities.  

As the global business with its international, national, and local dimensions wobbled during this pandemic, the most impacted component was the workforce with plenty of documented retrenchments due to feeble allocable reserves and surplus. It had been a catastrophe for the millions of families worldwide who lost their livelihood during this phase. However, there is an opinion that this virus-induced debacle had purged the unemployable section of the workforce retaining the competent and highly employable workforce only. 

This apparent challenge is the actual opportunity for the young and energetic community of prospective employees. This pandemic has made a paradigm shift in the work process. The emergence of paperless and internet-based work processes had been observed in both the industries – manufacturing and service. The employees had to unlearn many things and learn many new things to acclimatize to the new set of business processes. 

The use of information technology has become obligatory for the organizations in the present recession phase of pandemic, and the process demands more IT orientation of employees in the post-pandemic era. Business process integration is the new feature of any performing organization and the enterprise resource planning or ERP modules are being used by most of the market leaders. In addition to that, business analytics structuring the framework of presentation and analysis of data, and interpretation of results, has become an integral part of the business strategy formulation. 

The students of management – both undergraduates and postgraduates are exposed to immense career opportunities nowadays when the pandemic seemingly weaning off. Although the organizations are trying to return to their pre-COVID operational modalities, the aforementioned paradigmatic change will resist the full retreat toward the “old normal”. Hence, the business process has already taken a new shape of information technology orientation. 

 The undergraduate and postgraduate students of human resource management can pursue their careers in ERP operations. SAP AG, the world’s one of the most renowned ERP service providers recommends the employment of the management graduates who can work as the front-end user and can enter important human resource management data in the ERP. The clients of SAP AG, therefore, follow the above-mentioned recommendations and the demand for ERP front-end users is soaring high, both at the national and international levels. In this job, the knowledge of management operations and regulatory components (e.g. the country’s labour acts or codes) is essential. Therefore, undergraduate students with thorough knowledge of these HR managerial aspects will have career opportunities to work with prominent organizations. This opportunity is equally applicable to the other management domains also. 

The postgraduate students of HR Management can have the opportunity to function as backend support consultants for this SAP AG ERP. In this regard, they should be able to configure the structure of the HR operations through their IT skills and knowledge of human resource management. It is again not restricted to the domain of HR management only and shall be applicable for the other segments of management also. 

The second area of opportunity is in the domain of business analytics. The HR management has its own variant termed “HR analytics” where the generic features of business analytics will be preserved with specific application areas of HR operations. 

While companies have been using people and HR analytics for a long time, the roles within these areas are changing. HR analytics specialists, as a younger section of the HR community, sometimes face challenging career pathways both within and outside of the function. In view of that, the HR analytics experts must build analytical and technical competence in a field that frequently demands a high level of technical and managerial proficiencies. 

Domain experience in HR is a basic qualification for an HR analyst post. HRM courses or a foundation in industrial and organizational psychology are typically thought to be extremely useful. 

A background in economics, statistics, or analytics is also taken into account. People with these types of backgrounds bring a distinct set of quantitative skills that most HRM professionals lack. This background frequently necessitates additional HRM training. MS Excel expertise is a must-have talent. Most firms still use this and knowing how to combine worksheets and use Pivot Tables to analyse big amounts of data is commonly regarded as elementary. 

Work experience in HR is always advantageous, as is experienced with HRIS systems. Relevant experience with the organization’s tools and systems also works in employees’ favour. Tableau, PowerBI, Qlik, SAP, SuccessFactors, and more tools are examples. 

As far as the smaller businesses are concerned, they frequently struggle to find staff with the necessary abilities to assist them in making the transition from measurements to analytics to event prediction. According to Ms. Julie Schweber, of Society for Human Resource Management, this staffing gap will ensure opportunities for the undergraduates and postgraduates of human resources and other domains of management. 

Work From Home (WFH) and Work From Anywhere (WFA) are two emerging industry trends that will need a remote workforce and related digitization. HR workers will need to learn technological skills in cybersecurity and artificial intelligence in the future. In order to advance in an HR job, a student must re-skill himself. Human technology specialists, culture specialists, prejudice detection specialists, and other HR positions are possible in the post-COVID-19 period.  

Post-pandemic professions in Cyber Security

The epidemic caused significant employment losses and layoffs across a variety of sectors, with few or no new positions being filled. However, recruiting has started up again in some industries, which is a sign that the world has moved on from the pandemic.

“The pandemic helped us understand how important it is to digitise our records. Everything, from the job roles itself to the hiring process itself, has been shifted into the virtual platform. According to Ashutosh Seth, founder of Risebird, an edtech company that assists recruiting teams in completing the technical interviewing process, as a consequence, positions have evolved to deal and manage the enormous amount of data that has transferred on cloud platforms.

“There is a significant shortage of qualified candidates for tech positions such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), cyber security (CS), data analyst (DA), and coding developers (coders).” In addition to this, there is also an increase in the demand for people who work in the medical field as well as pharmacists, says he.

During the epidemic, there was a halt to any new employment, and there were even reductions in workforce size and layoffs. It was anticipated that once the pandemic was declared over, there would be an increase in the number of people getting jobs. According to Kamlesh Vyas, Partner at Deloitte India, “unfortunately, we have not seen that happening.” [Citation needed]

“This could be due to a number of factors since a number of businesses have incurred damages that are beyond repair and are unable to backfill their positions.” There aren’t many sectors that are still operating in the watch-and-wait mentality before investing in people. Because of the epidemic, many organisations have gained the ability to function with fewer employees as a result of automation, rationalisation, restructuring, multi-skilling, and other such practises, and thus do not see the need for aggressive hiring. However, according to Vyas, occupations in high-end technologies, such as artificial intelligence, analytics, cyber security, augmented reality/virtual reality, robots, cloud computing, and so on, would continue to be in demand during this period.

The epidemic has also brought to light the significance of developing automated systems. As a direct consequence of this, there is a greater demand for hardware engineers to automate the gear and devices that are already in use. According to Balasubramanian A, Business Head, Consumer and Healthcare, TeamLease Services, the professionals who will be working in the world after the pandemic would need to get themselves ready for the digital world and the more automated sector.

In addition to the obvious desire for IT expertise or occupations driven by technology, he notes that there is a demand for entry-level positions in field sales. These individuals are responsible for bringing the meal to the table. During the shutdown, a large number of businesses were severely disrupted, and many found it difficult to reach their ultimate goals. Now that a lot of businesses are attempting to get back on their feet, make up for any losses, and enhance their market share, those businesses are placing a strong emphasis on employing frontline sales employees.

According to a survey compiled by TeamLease, the average growth in salaries for sales profiles was found to be 7.41 percent, while the growth in salaries for R & D Analyst positions in the Healthcare & Pharmaceuticals industry was reported as 9.39 percent. The report went on to state that the increase in pay for the position of Automation Engineer in Information Technology and Knowledge Services was registered at 10.71 percent.

According to Balasubramanian A., in the world that has been left behind by the epidemic, businesses are now delivering professionals concrete benefits in the form of flexibility in regard to both time and location. Compared to a couple of years ago, when it came to giving in to the expectations of the employers, the businesses have been a lot more accommodating in recent times.

Biochemistry: An Integral Part of Drug Discovery

The on-going pandemic situation gave humanity a hard lesson- life is uncertain. Before the pandemic, we never seriously thought about this type of disease which could lead to such a global health crisis. Now, Covid-19 is a reality and it taught us that as the virus changed itself we must constantly change ourselves and be prepared for sudden battles. Humanity has a long history of fighting against deadly diseases like plague, malaria, polio, cholera, etc. and in all those battles our greatest weapons are drugs. In this article, we will see how biochemistry is an integral part of a drug discovery process.

Biochemistry is the amalgamation of chemistry and biological sciences. It brings together all of the sciences to study the chemical and physical processes that occur in living organisms. It truly is the science of life. Students of biochemistry learn various classical as well as modern subjects like stem cell biology, immunology, bioinformatics, genetic engineering, and many more. These subjects give them ample knowledge about the basic processes of life and that gives them the scope to explore properly a particular phenomenon in a living system. The mixture of chemistry and biology is a tremendous weapon for students for understanding the complex design of a disease-causing bacteria or virus. Applying these knowledge life-saving drugs can be developed by biochemistry professionals.

A drug is a chemical substance that, when administered to a living organism produces a biological effect. Drugs are also called medicine as it is used for treatment, cure, prevent disease, and promote good health. Drugs can be taken via different modes like inhalation, injection, ingestion, absorption via a patch on the skin, suppository, or dissolution under the tongue. So, recently discovered vaccines against Covid-19 are also part of modern-day drugs.

There are several phases of drug discovery and its commercialization; 1) Basic research for lead development 2) Preclinical studies 3) Clinical studies (different phases) 4) Review by regulatory authorities and approval 5) Pre and post marketing monitoring. In all these phases major roles are played by biochemistry people.

The first step of basic research consists of lead molecule discovery and its target identification which is totally done by biomedical scientists. During lead discovery, an intensive search ensues to find a drug-like small molecule or biological therapeutic, typically termed a development candidate, that will progress into preclinical, and if successful, into clinical development and ultimately be a marketed medicine. Generally, drugs are very specific in nature, i.e., they work in a specific manner on a specific type of cell or exo or endotoxins. So, first, to discover the lead, one has to find the type of cell or chemical substances on which the drug is going to affect, what’s the nature of the target.

The next step is the preclinical trial, which is a stage of research that begins before clinical trials (testing in humans) and during which important feasibility, iterative testing, and drug safety data are collected, typically in laboratory animals. This step requires multiple types of studies/tests like screening, tests on isolated organs and bacterial cultures, tests on animal models, general observational tests, confirmatory tests and analogous activities, mechanism of action, systemic pharmacology, quantitative tests etc. that are all done by Biochemistry people. The main purpose of preclinical studies is to accurately model the desired biological effect of a drug in animals [non-human primates] in order to predict treatment outcomes in patients (efficacy), and to identify and characterize all toxicities associated with a drug in order to predict adverse events in people (safety) for informed—preclinical testing analyses the bioactivity, safety, and efficacy of the formulated drug product.

After a proposed drug has gone through premedical trials, the next step is clinical trials. The main difference is while preclinical research answers basic questions about a drug’s safety, it is not a substitute for studies of ways the drug will interact with the human body. The biomedical persons design clinical trials, develop a study plan or protocol and follow them to answer specific research questions related to medical products. Before the trial begins, they decide who qualifies to participate (selection criteria), how many people will be part of the study, how long the study will last, whether there will be a control group and other ways to limit research bias, how the drug will be given to patients and at what dosage, what assessments will be conducted, when, and what data will be collected, how the data will be reviewed and analysed. Clinical trials follow a typical series of early, small-scale, Phase 1 studies [20-100 healthy/diseased volunteers], Phase 3 studies [Several hundred people with the disease], Phase 3 studies [300-3000 volunteers with the disease], and lastly, late-stage, large scale Phase 4 studies [Several thousand volunteers with the disease].

The next step is, review by regulatory authorities and approval of the drug. Drug approval processes are designed to allow safe and effective drugs to be marketed. Drug regulatory agencies in various countries attempt to rely on premarketing scientific studies of the effects of drugs in animals and humans in order to determine if new drugs have a favourable risk-to-benefit ratio. The manufacturer must provide the concerned authority review of all the test and study reports with detailed information about the proposed drug including usage of the drug to be effective, all the possible risks, and how to use it. Physicians and scientists of the concerned authority then review the drug research and the labelling information on how to use the drug. If the findings show the drug’s benefits outweigh its known risks — and that the drug can be manufactured in a way that ensures a quality product.

After the drug gets all the certification, the last step is Post-marketing monitoring. Post marketing drug surveillance refers to the monitoring of drugs once they reach the market after clinical trials. It evaluates drugs taken by individuals under a wide range of circumstances over an extended period of time. Such surveillance is much more likely to detect previously unrecognized positive or negative effects that may be associated with a drug. The majority of post-marketing surveillance concern adverse drug reactions (ADRs) monitoring and evaluation. Therefore, biochemistry people always get an edge in these type of drug developmental industry.


Optical fiber is one of the medium and the technology which is mostly linked with the transmission of information signal. More than 90 percent of the world’s long-distance traffic is passed over optical fiber cables now a days as it offers high-performance data networking. Verizon and Google have explored fiber optics in their Verizon FIOS and Google Fiber services which is providing gigabit internet speeds to users. Another emerging area is optical sensing by optical fiber, with countless opportunities spanning many fields including environmental detection, biomedical sensing, and structural monitoring.

Photonics: A sub-discipline of Physics introduce the science of creating, sensing and monitoring photons or light particles 

Photonics is the subarea of Physics where light emission, transmission, deflection, amplification and detection by optical components and instruments. Most significantly, whenever career opportunity on Photonics is point of interest, the other sub-component such as lasers and other light sources, fiber optics, electro-optical instrumentation, related hardware and electronics and sophisticated systems is very important. In brief, learning of optical fibersensor technology is sort of diverging your job opportunity in India, Europe and USA.

Optical fiber sensor Industry & Academic sector

Worldwide top ranked companies of optical fiber sensor technology are Organic Robotics, Aerodyne research, Interdisciplinary consulting, NKT Photonics, NP Photonics, Eagle etc. Techno-savvy world demands scientists, engineers and technicians with relevant qualification and experience of photonics. Making a career in optical fiber sensor field is stable and rewarding. Students of Photonics and Optoelectronics are fascinated as sales or service engineers in high-tech equipment industries; High scope as researcher or professional officers in universities, government and industry-research laboratories. There is opportunity as optical communications network support engineers and managers; and also, in defence research and development organizations.

Are you surprise! There are surveys during the past several years portrayed that European workers in the photonics industry are generally satisfied with their jobs, enjoy prolonged vacations and earn a better-than-average living with their highly specialized, technical knowledge.

Global Start-ups Venture of Fiber Optic Sensors2021-2027

Post-pandemic global market of Fiber Optics Sensor is reported in Research and (Fiber Optic Sensors – Global Market Trajectory & Analytics).Intrinsic Fiber Optic Sensors, is projected to record 8.6% CAGR and reach US$910.3 Million by the end of the analysis period. After an early analysis of the business implications of the pandemic and its induced economic crisis, growth in the Extrinsic Fiber Optic Sensors segment is readjusted to a revised 6.9% CAGR for the next 7-year period.

he Fiber Optic Sensors market in the U.S. is approximated at US$227.7 Million in the year 2020. China, the world`s second largest economy, is estimated to reach a projected market size of US$328.4 Million by the year 2027 trailing a CAGR of 12.1% over the analysis period 2020 to 2027. Japan and Canada, each forecast to grow at 4.3% and 7.1% respectively over the 2020-2027 period. Within Europe, Germany is forecast to grow at approximately 5.1% CAGR.This market growth will accelerate the job opportunities in the optical fiber sensor field.

Why this growth is expected? will it fetch career prospects!

  1. COVID-19, the pandemic, restricted human life within their home, millions of people compelled to work from home and stuck to their computers than ever before. Eventually, now a days, without the help of internet life is difficult. Vodafone already declared in a recent article that data traffic increase by 50% in some markets. Online services are being obstructed, broadband downloading speed becoming low and FWA has limitation. So, continuous demand of optical fiber in telecommunication starts the growth of optical fiber industry.
  2. After pandemic, demand of optical fiber sensor is expected to become more intense, particularly for applications in extreme environmental conditions in which electrical sensors fail to function as effectively. Examples of such applications include the oil & gas and manufacturing sectors.
  3. The strong demand is expected in exploration of unconventional energy resources across the world. Ultra-miniaturized and power-efficient sensors promotion is predicted to contribute significantly to market growth. The market is also driven by applications such as crack monitoring in concrete-based structures.
  4. Advancement of Fiber optic sensors in current scenario is faster and efficient means for identifying structural damages in civil constructions and aircrafts. Sensing intrusion in secured premises, identifying presence of oil in oil reservoirs etc. are the significant applications so far with optical fiber sensor.

These are the reasons why optical fibersonsor technology will continue to remain in focus of global R&D and commercialization efforts in these segments. Post-pandemic era will be demanding for more effective cleavers, low-loss splicers, multi-port couplers, intra-fiber devices, and mode-area transformers etc. Consequently, the associated companies, R & D sector of government and private sectors will create promising career prospects for the students.

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