Potentiality of Corn Bio-Fuel in Indian Future Mobility

Corn is grown and appropriated not as a food but also put to use to generate ethanol, which can be used as fuel to operate internal combustion engines in order to avoid the usage of exhaustible resources. The price of the liquid fuels has been increasing gradually in India, it causes harmful emissions as well, and the effect can be noticed if we see the air quality index of different states. In order to search for an alternative, we need to shift our view towards bio-diesel which can be used as the substitute of the exhaustible resources and it produces less harmful gases. One of the potential resources for producing bio-diesel in India is corn, which is largely cultivated crop in Northern India. The total number of vehicles have been increased from 5.4 million to 210 million between 2005 and 2015 in India. Due to the uncontrolled mobility in urban areas, the environment has been affected from the exhaust gases so badly in many states. In few major metropolitan cities, the pollution level has crossed the permissible limit of PM2.5, which is set up by WHO. According to the WHO database, 14 out of 15 most polluted cities in the world, belongs to India only, Kanpur tops the list of the most polluted cities in the entire world with 173 micrograms per cubic meter and Delhi secures the sixth position with pollution level of 141 micrograms per cubic meter according to the PM2.5 database in 2016. Total 11% of the carbon emission is accounted from the transportation; it was 24% in 1971. The effective move, which was taken by the Indian government, was switching to CNG and India operates maximum buses on the road, fuelled by CNG. This country owns 11.75% of total natural gas operated vehicles and holds the third place, running behind China (23%) and Iran (17%). By 2030, India is aiming to be the third largest automobile manufacturing country after USA and China and this is the high time to impart innovations to this specific domain, which can cause less PM, CO2, NOx and SOx emission. Biofuels have great future prospects in developing nations due to energy insecurity. Large agricultural sector can be a good support in order to produce biodiesels from crops. Shuit et. Al [3] stated that the fourth assessment report of IPCC concludes that the reason behind global warming for last 50 years, mostly due to emission of harmful CO2, nitrous oxide and methane. Transportation has been identified as the major source of air pollution in megacities since last century. The bad effect of motorization leads more petroleum-based fuels to be used in road transport that directly affects the human health. On the basis of an analysis, which has been done by taking data of 50 countries and 35 urban areas that vehicle per capita has been increased at the same rate as income per capita. Countries like India, China and Pakistan where growth rate of passenger cars are double than that of income per capita. India has secured the place in top 10 among biggest emitters of atmospheric pollutants. Road fuel consumption is nearly doubled in every ten years since 1975. Biofuel can be used to meet the future needs of mobility and it can safeguard the environment and human health as it does not contain any sulphur or metals, which contribute to the acid rain by producing sulphuric acid. Peng et al. investigated different parameters and the limited data projected that exhaust emission in terms of total vapour phase hydrocarbons, total carbonyl compounds, total poly aromatic hydrocarbons etc. were lower when biodiesel was used. Global energy demand will be increased by 4.6%, almost 70% of it will be utilized in global emerging markets and developing economics. Global CO2 emission is heading towards the second largest annual increase ever in 2021, coal demand is set exceed the demand of 2019 and approaching towards the 2014 peak. Utilization of natural gas is being increased by 3.1% in 202. Renewable sources retain the success in these days in power, industry, transport and heating sectors. A report named Net Zero by 2050: A road map for the global energy sector stated that 7 Gt of CO2 has been emitted from global transport sector in 2019 and it is expected that it will be around 5.5 Gt by 2030 if we use the other environment friendly fuel and 0.7 Gt by 2050.  As per the report published by Indian government on World Bio-Fuel Day named Bio-Fuels towards Atmanirbhar Bharat  it is concluded that biodiesels can enhance India’s energy security and reduce petroleum dependency. Few potential resources have been identified in order to get bio fuel from the crops and government is implementing policies to spread the awareness among citizens. India aiming to produce 20% ethanol blended biofuel by 2030 and 3% contributor to global ethanol production. Therefore, many initiatives have been taken to produce bio-fuel at higher rate in India using different techniques and waste management strategies.

Apart from USA and Brazil, many countries have been producing bio-ethanol to meet the continuously increasing need. In India, per year 426 crore litres bio-ethanol is being produced from molasses-based distilleries and 258 crore from grain-based distilleries. It has been proposed to increase 760 crore and 740 crore respectively. Indian government has given emphasize on producing bio-ethanol from grains in last few years.

The world’s corn production capacity is near about 1.05 million thousand tons, whereas the USA tops the list of producing corn which is estimated at 360,252 thousand tons. In 2020, India has produced 30,250 thousand tons of corn. It was 5101 thousand tons in 1971 and it is growing at the rate of 4.67%. According to ICAR, India secures 4th in area and 7th in production among the maize producing countries. Corn production area has been increased to 9.2 million ha during 2018-2019. Average productivity has increased by 5.42 times from 547 kg/ha to 2965 kg/ha, productivity in India is almost half of the world.

Madhya Pradesh (15%) and Karnataka (15%) clench the first position in terms of highest cornfield area accompanied by Maharashtra (10%), Rajasthan (9%) and Uttar Pradesh (5%). Whereas Andhra Pradesh secures the top position in terms of corn production, it is as high as 12 tonne per ha. Looking at the statistics of corn production and the potentiality for bio-ethanol to be used as fuel, it is said that corn can be one of the major grain resources in India to produce ethanol. Chemical composition of corn revels that it contains 72% starch, 9.5% fiber,9.5% protein and 4.3% oil. It is investigated that 56 lbs of corn can produce 30.7 lbs of starch or 35 lbs of sweeteners or 21 lbs of polylactic acid polymers and can produce 2.87 gallons of ethanol. This ethanol can be used with diesel to improve the emission and it also fulfils the need of the alternative fuel in the automobile sector in India.

Ethanol production from corn: Farm to Fermentation

Corn has to undergo many processes to be considered ready for ethanol production. The first step is to remove the kernels from the cob, this process is known as postharvest where all the stones, soil, sticks, etc. are removed by means of scalpers. A huge bio-technical is associated followed by three steps –

  • Starch is to be converted to fermentable sugar by means of milling, liquefaction, and saccharification (enzyme-based).
  • Fermentation, where yeast helps these sugars to convert into ethanol.
  • Generated ethanol is taken out from other by-products using the distillation process.

Fig. 2: Schematic diagram of ethanol production from corn [icon courtesy: www.nounprojects.com]

Milling is the first step of the biotechnical process and it can be classified into two main categories namely wet milling and dry milling. The main purpose of the process is to break-down the starch into simple sugar components whereas the liquefaction process is done in order to make the simple sugar soft for an efficient enzymatic digestion. Indian government has paid attention to establish such plants to produce ethanol to be used with diesel to meet the demand. And, obviously corn can be the one of the resources for the same.

Better Emission

This is the need of the hour to replace authentic fuel in automobiles as it emits harmful components like CO, CO2, NO2 etc. Bio-fuel helps engine to perform and emit less pollutant. Many additives can be used to improve the performance in terms of power generation and speed.  Manigadan S. et al. [12] investigated the emission characteristics of corn oil blended with methyl ester and oxygenated additives. In this study, BSFC and BP have been increased by 6.3% and 22.01% respectively. And, 16% reduction in NOx emission has been observed, Titanium di-oxide (TiO2) has been used as additive. But, many oxygenated nanoparticles like aluminium oxide etc. can be used to improve the performance, as well.

 

Career as a Machine Learning Engineer in the post-pandemic world

The entire globe has been facing an unprecedented challenge from the Novel Coronavirus, which has made the physical world come to a standstill and the world economy has been holding onto a thread due to this fatal pandemic. But the brighter side of this gloomy situation is that companies are finally appreciating and understanding the significance of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence in the practical world. More and more brands are now taking up Machine Learning solutions for their business problems. Not only Machine Learning is used to combat the global pandemic but it has also come out as an important tool in constructing a better world post-COVID. Machine Learning has the capability of providing an understanding and early analysis of problems and prompt resolutions. This technology is used by the doctors and health practitioners to track the virus, identify potential threat to patients and predict the possible cure from disease. These reasons indicate that Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, both are here to rule and this can be an interesting career option for the aspirants who are passionate about data and numbers. Machine Learning has been at the forefront for all the advanced programmers who intend to develop intelligent systems that learn and apply knowledge. These programmers, better known as Machine Learning (ML) engineers, train systems with the help of complex datasets and algorithms.

Machine learning brief explanation

Machine Learning is a subset of Artificial Intelligence, which combines Statistics and Computer Science to predict using different mathematical models. The predictive model can be based on like whether an image contains cat or dog, predicting credit card fraud detection etc. The main objective of Machine Learning is to take decisions based on predictive modelling. Hidden patterns across the datasets are extracted and useful insights about data are found out to drive important decisions, improve customer relationship based on feedback patterns or launch new business.

What are the pre-requisites for becoming a Machine Learning engineer?

A Machine Learning engineer requires to be proficient in a bunch of technical skills for building predictive models.

Below are given some of the primary components of the Machine Learning engineer role:

  • Data: The Machine Learning engineer has to understand the importance of data in predictive modelling. The data pre-processing is one of the important steps for constructing a Machine Learning model. Data has to be analysed and described in terms of the problem requirement. Good quality data is a necessary requirement in building efficient Machine Learning model.
  • Predictive Models: Machine Learning engineers need to construct the models designed by the data scientists, understand the model validation in order to get an essence of the estimation of value addition to the business and understand how to fine-tune these models to optimize them for the consumption by end users.
  • Software Engineering: They need to be efficient in coding back-end so that the models can be made available to users through a user-friendly API.
  • Efficient Scaling of Infrastructure: They need to keep the system prepared for scaling of infrastructure so that the system may not collapse when multiple number of users start operating their models.

Where is Machine Learning used in real life?

Machine Learning is being used in real life in many fields, industries or domains. Some of the application areas of Machine Learning are listed below:

  • Image Recognition: It is a popular and widely used application area of Machine Learning. This is used to identify an object from a digital image.

Some of the use-cases of Image Recognition:

  • Photograph-tagging in social media
  • Hand-writing recognition by segregating a single letter into component images
  • Speech Recognition: Machine Learning has the capability of translating speech into text.

Some of the use-cases of Speech Recognition:

  • Voice-based digital assistants like Amazon Alexa or Google Home etc.
  • Search based on voice
  • Dialling based on voice
  • Symptom analysis in healthcare domain: Machine Learning can help the medical practitioners to ascertain symptoms in diseases by leveraging the capability of chat bots. This is called symptom analysis which utilises the power of Natural Language Processing and text mining etc. to analyse the disease symptoms and predict the next steps to be taken as precautionary measures or remedial measures.

Primary objectives of a Machine Learning Engineer

Primary responsibilities of a Machine Learning engineer lies in creation of Machine Learning models and re-training models as and when required. Some of the common responsibilities of the role relate to:

  • Machine Learning system design
  • Implementation of Machine Learning algorithms and tools
  • Dataset selection and dataset representation methods
  • Verification of data quality
  • Accomplishing statistical analysis
  • Executing Machine Learning tests
  • Improving Machine Learning models by tuning of models by proper selection of hyper-parameters
  • Constructing Machine Learning apps as per requirement

Now, let us see the skill sets that are important for a Machine Learning Engineer.

Skill set of a Machine Learning Engineer

For becoming a Machine Learning Engineer, an aspirant should have the following skills:

  • Mathematical and statistical skills relating to subjects such as Calculus, Linear Algebra, Statistics etc.
  • Advanced degree in Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics or a related degree
  • Master’s degree is desirable in Machine Learning, Deep Learning or related fields
  • Coding in programming languages like Python, R etc.
  • Skills pertaining to Software Engineering, Computer Architecture, Data Science and the like
  • Working experience with Machine Learning packages and libraries etc.

References:

  1. Rise in the demand for Machine Learning & AI skills in the post-COVID world, https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/spotlight/rise-in-the-demand-for-machine-learning-ai-skills-in-the-post-covid-world/articleshow/75464397.cms
  2. Machine learning engineer (ML engineer), https://www.techtarget.com/searchenterpriseai/definition/machine-learning-engineer-ML-engineer#:~:text=Machine%20learning%20engineers%20design%20and,data%20engineers%20and%20data%20architects.
  3. AI/ML Remains The Most In-Demand Tech Skill Post COVID, https://analyticsindiamag.com/ai-ml-remains-the-most-in-demand-tech-skill-post-covid/
  4. AI, Automation and In-Demand Skills for a Post-Pandemic World, https://www.sigconsult.com/blog/2021/03/ai-automation-and-in-demand-skills-for-a-post-pandemic-world?source=google.co.in
  5. Artificial Intelligence in a post-pandemic world of work and skills, https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/news/artificial-intelligence-post-pandemic-world-work-and-skills

COVID impact, new trends and research in Civil Engineering and Construction

For the last two and half years, people of this planet have experienced a pandemic situation due to outbreak of Novel Corona virus. As per the situation, there is scarcely any country that   has remained unchanged by the harshness of this virus. Our country is not an exception from this pandemic. Sometimes positivity rate of Corona Virus came down but suddenly it has started a reverse flow towards higher positivity during the last three waves happened till date. Not only the human lives but most of the commercial activities also had been suffering by the pandemic. Some industries might had overcome the pandemic situation but most of them faced much difficulties and obviously construction engineering sector was also in the list.

The construction industry and civil engineering add mainly to the Indian economy. The unfavourable situation due to pandemic has caused all construction projects to come to an end suddenly but the jobs in design sectors were managed by work from home. Construction  industry,  the  main  pillar  of  the  national  economy had  faced  a  long  challenge  like  regulatory  burden  under environmental laws which  had  coupled  with  the pandemic. Subsequently lockdown   imposed to deal with the situation restricting the movement of people, gatherings and strictly   maintaining social distance.  All  these  had  made  a  tremendous  effect  in  Indian  economy  and  construction  industry  has  been  halted  throughout  the  country.

In India, the dilemma for the Civil engineering sector is high and it is infuriated and hard to treat with as there is no standard format of contracts for construction sector. There could be immense variations in particular state of affairs of a Construction and Engineering contract. Although, there is standard forms of construction and engineering contracts by International Federation of Consulting Engineers, Institution of Civil Engineers and Indian Institute of Architects but at that times they are eagerly settled and hence it lost uniformity.

In most of the construction and engineering, contracts parties generally mention the time of   completion of works. Due  to  Novel  Corona Virus,  workers  did not  feel  safe  to  work  in the construction  site  and  they  returned  to  their   home  leaving  their  job. So,  many of the  projects were not completed  in  stipulated  period  and  the  contractor  became  a  defaulter. In some cases, contractors had to pay compensation for delay in completing the project.

Government of India declared closing of all universities, colleges and schools. The whole education system suffered a lot due to the situation and came to a worst situation. To  Cope  with the  situation, online classes were started but by the method, teacher was unable to identify the effective attendance of a particular  student for the entire class session but one good  thing  is  that  there is no loss of time for to and fro during  online  classes and  as most  of  the time  students  remain  at  home, they  can  easily  join  some  other  online  activities like attending in Webinar, others Professional course etc. to  improve  their  knowledge  and  skill . In case of  normal  situation  when the  students  would attend classes  physically, it  would not be possible for  them to attend such  courses which even conducting from abroad also.

But online system had disadvantage also. It was not possible exactly to evaluate a student in the online examination as some of students took help of open book, open study materials, internet search and help from friends during examination time. Some students received participation certificate of Webinar without attending attentively.                                                                        

As a result, some changes happened in Civil Engineering and Construction sector to adopt the situation. Earlier contractors in the sites would to hire many labours to complete the project. But due to pandemic, contractors hired less number of labours and used many machineries in construction works. Ready mix concrete was brought from Batching plant instead of producing concrete at site. Digital system, like Building Information Modelling and integrated project management platforms were already recognized as digital building blocks for the construction industry. Also, repetitive and dangerous works that people want to avoid means implementation of automation can support the industry’s labour and skills crisis. At that moment, robotic automation deals enormous possibility to increase output, efficiency and flexibility of construction process throughout the construction industry, as well as to automate the fabrication of modular houses, robotic welding and material handling on construction sites, robot 3D printing of structures. As well as building the industry safer and more cost efficient, robots are recuperating sustainability and dropping environmental impact by enhancing recycling by means of cutting waste. Robots can produce safer construction by managing heavy loads, working in unsafe locations and enabling safer ways of construction. With the industry producing increased environmental pollution and the need for more cost-effective structures, robotic automation reduces waste by improving quality, which is important when it’s approximated that up to a quarter of materials out of total materials  transported to a construction site leaves as waste. With automation and digital technology, Engineers can also design waste out at the beginning of a project through effective Building Information Modelling and construction processes.

Very renowned Universities like us designed Smart Lab by which student can watch a live demonstration of all parts of a particular experiment. Virtual Internship was also arranged for the student. In Virtual Internship, the video of Construction site works were shown to students by the Senior executives of the company. The conduction of recruitment drive was also easier as it was done online. Students had not missed even any event as all were organised by online mode. By using of digital library, students were able to view and download books, journals. Research activities were not stopped also during the pandemic situation. Researcher provided priority on Analytical research than Descriptive research in the current situation and also changed the area of research to suit Analytical research.

In a concluding remark, Every problem has a best solution; you just need to discover it.

Further Studies

5G Implementation to 6G Evolution in IoT

The change from landline phones to the movability that 1G distant advancement offered was an immense leap. However, in our view, the leap from 4G to 5G is in much the same way enormous, as 5G is the vessel that will broaden the Internet of Things (IoT) climate decisively. We expect the creating number of related contraptions passing on at higher multi-gigabit data speeds and dare to increase network capacity to work with 5G’s gathering rate. Besides, as individual and corporate clients experience 5G’s benefits, they will clear a path for 6G’s augmentation — which history proposes is most likely going to come sooner than later.

Key Points

  • Broadband IoT, including 4G and 5G far off headways, is ready to outperform 2G besides, 3G as the part that engages the greatest piece of IoT applications from one side of the planet to the other by 2027.
  • The amount of related IoT contraptions generally extended by around 9% in 2021 to 2.3 billion unique endpoints. Moreover, that number should pass twofold to more than 27billion when 2025.
  • The energy for 5G continues to grow with associations beforehand executing the advancement. 5G should make 4G old by 2030, along these lines, with everything taken into account 6G could be Again ready to change IoT.

5G Network Expected to Widespread in 2025

As with each new alliance, a mass get-together of 5G will take time, yet not as much time as its forerunners. The 3G social affair wasn’t fast due to purchasers floundering towards change and 3G’s more extreme expense networks. The clearest system for drawing in an agreed data network development combines exploring the speed at which past cell networks were made. Shipped off in 2001, 3G cell networks didn’t change into the norm until 2007, when clients embraced 3Gconnected phones — four years after 3G opened up and 16 years after 2G moderate accessibility opened up. Generally, 4G cell networks were conveyed in 2009 and changed into the standard four years eventually later in 2013 — two years faster than the 2G to 3G change and simply a brief timeframe after 3G shipped off.

Cell Information Network Ages as The Years Progressed
Cell Information Network Ages as The Years Progressed

As per these certain examples, we expect 5G’s gathering rate to go on in the steps of 4G’s fast move to standard. After a restricted scope course of action in 2015, as attempts began testing 5G advancement, current appraisals suggest an overall inevitable gathering of 5G occurs in 2025 4G flexible enrolments are projected to top at 4.7 billion in Quarter 4 2021, and a short time later constantly decline to 3.3 billion around the completion of 2027, as 5G transforms into the fundamental participation choice.

Data Communication Lifecycle
Data Communication Lifecycle

Telecoms Report for 5G Adoption Evident Already

In its middle, 5G is planned to further develop the IoT’s buying experience. Purchasers will need to get to cloud organizations rolling from multiplayer cloud gaming, extended reality (AR)- filled shopping experiences, and permission to free robots for movements. As buyers experience 5G power, the more they’re likely going to research. Additionally, according to telecom providers, the word is getting out. Verizon itemized that 25% of its buyer distant clients used 5G-capable contraptions under a year after their conveyance, well before 4G’s 10% gathering rate a year after ship off. As a part of the 5G increment, telecoms are shutting down additional laid outages, including 3G, to reuse frequencies and work on their 4G and 5G associations. AT&T logically progressed away from the 3G relationship in February 2022 T-Mobile means to make a move as needs be in July, and Verizon before the ongoing year’s over by the completion of 2027, 40% of cell IoT affiliations should be broadband IoT (4G/5G).

5G Plan to Overtake Market
5G Plan to Overtake Market

5G’s Power on display

A couple of extraordinary IoT associations are early adopters of 5G advancement. From time to time, 5G made their more prepared models old. In various cases, 5G nudged the improvement of new advances. One model is Qualcomm’s Snapdragon, the association’s adaptable structures on a chip (SoC) thing suite. In handsets, the Snapdragon 8 Gen 1 is the world’s most significant 5G modem-radiofrequency reply for showing up at a 10-gigabit download speed or 10,000 megabits. At this speed, colossal data records can be downloaded rapidly. For setting, 4K spouting across different contraptions expects around 100 megabits or 1% of Snapdragon 8 Gen 1’s most extreme limit. Qualcomm checks that 5G-engaged handsets will show up at 750 million units sold in 2022. Cisco’s Catalyst 900X trading stage is another model. In light of Cisco’s Silicon One development, the 900X licenses the association to use quick Wi-Fi 6E sections to give 5G and cloud-based game plans. It expands the presence of existing cabling from 1 to 10 gigabits. Cisco hopes to offer 5G as an a-organization game plans commonly open to private endeavors, the advancement ability of which could be gigantic given the prerequisite for further developed data speeds, cloud accessibility, and flexibility in blend strategies. All around, attempts reliant upon security, similar to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and organizations, such as programming as-expert association, Zendesk, relied upon Cisco’s switch advancement. Cisco expects spending on private LTE and 5G association establishment by relationship to outperform $5.7 billion by 2024. Likewise, mechanical innovation association ABB worked together with frameworks organization and telecom association Ericsson to make the keen handling plants address what might be on the horizon. ABB expects to include 5G advancement to motorize client help with utilities, present-day, transport, and structure pieces. 5G should allow more modern office robots to exploit the cloud for more unmistakable figuring power and discard comparatively inefficient and extreme in-house central dealing with units or plans taking care of units. All the while, robots can be controlled utilizing a 5G remote organization inside a distance of 1.5 kMS and in any case show steady control, given 5G’s super-low torpidity capacities. The overall market for 5G in cloud mechanical innovation should create at a 79.2% form yearly improvement rate to reach $10.6 billion by 2028.

5G Adoption to Surface the Way for 6G

We guess that fundamental tailwinds ought to result from 5G’s ability to relate, all things considered, everyone and everything speedier and more strongly than any time in late memory. Additionally, 5G’s accelerated gathering rate near to its predecessors will set up the overall economy for an altogether faster rollout representing things to come. 6G, which could hit the market by 2030, will offer more imperative use of circled radio access association (RAN), terahertz (THz) range for essentially more prominent cut off, lower dormancy, and better reach sharing so various classes of clients can safely have a comparative repeat gathering. With inventive work in progress starting around 2020, 6G will progress IoT impressively further towards a possible destiny of totally savvy and autonomous structures. Regardless, first, we’ll embrace 5G and its benefits as a general rule, which are currently starting to show up.

Advantages of 5G Communication

Fast Speed: The zenith speed of 5G correspondence can reach to 10Gbps up and 20Gbps down. Clients can truly experience speeds of 50Mbps up and 100Mbps down.

High cut off: 5G correspondence network is prepared for supporting high-thickness contraption affiliations and high breaking point data transmission. The presentation rundown of a 5G correspondence network is 1,000,000 contraption relationships for each square kilometer. Meanwhile, the display record of a 5G correspondence network is 10Mbps data transmission capacity per square meter.

High unfaltering quality: 5G correspondences support significantly strong data affiliations. Additionally, a show indication of high steadfastness tends to 0.001% package incident rate. This speed is like fiber optic trades. 5G correspondence network utilizes the consideration and convenience of low repeat band and the high information move limit and high speed of high repeat band to give high trustworthiness correspondence to clients through multi-affiliation advancement.

Low deferral: 5G correspondence has unimaginably low dormancy. Moreover, the typical show record of 5G correspondence’s beginning to end inaction is 1ms.

Low power use: 5G correspondence can figure out the traits of low power usage in unambiguous circumstances. 5G correspondence maintains high rest/development extent and broadened rest when no data is conveyed. In low power wide locale association (LPWAN), IoT has a remarkable application prospect.

6G Infrastructure Scenarios

Other than the utilization of new recurrence goes, an examination concerning new organizations is necessary. While certain uses of 5G will likewise keep on being conveyed in the current 5G groups, which, over the long run, perhaps rethought to 6G.

Industrial Networks

While 5G was inventive in presenting the chance of industry 4.0, we infer that 6G will take colossal steps in changing the social occasion and creation processes. The improvement of present-day affiliations will rely on useful social affairs of current and future radio access advances to the key business 4.0 and past use cases. Current associations are viewed as privatized, zeroing in on insane persevering through quality and ultralow idleness.

The critical strategy use cases are:

  1. Correspondence among sensors and robots
  2. Trades across different robots for coordination of attempts
  3. Correspondence between human current office heads and robots.

Right now, to accomplish the necessities for ultrahigh unwavering quality, most of the business approaches are going on a few spots in the extent of 3.4 and 3.8 GHz, where the spread divert is decently rich to the degree that diffraction ability. Regardless, machines with immense openness in the 6G period will likewise request high information rates close by advancing control and Al to have the decision to convey and manage top-quality visual information, drawing in robotized twins of machines and activities, too s remote inspecting. To this end, we expect the utilization of millimeter Wave frequencies notwithstanding bundles under 6 GHz for the present-day relationship over the going 10 years.

Wireless Personal Area Networks(WPANs)

One more area of affiliation is WPANS and far-off areas (WLANs). These WLANs’ astoundingly short affiliations may be under 0.5-1 m for WPANS and up to 30 m for WLANs. All window WLANs sight be reasonable for this application, taking into account that the affiliation money-related course of action can meet how episode when the higher windows are utilized and where genuine execution advancements exist.

Autonomous Vehicles and Smart Vehicles say Networks

6G could be utilized for data splitting between free vehicles and V2I. In any case, there are questions are expecting traffic conditions and brief distances considering showing up at deterrents talked about before will make the THz packs appropriate for this application. Further, in more, the speedy adaptable relationship between getting wires on train ate roofs and foundations can be utilized for transmission of both thriving’s fundamental data and outright pilgrim information. Such incredibly high rate joins are fitting for THz, yet the high cover ability makes serious areas of strength for beamforming bungles and expected issues with the Doppler spread. While the speed of current fast trains is fundamentally solid, and thus, shafts can be controlled in the right course settled on supposition, the required beamforming gain (and related thin bar width) makes the design touchy to even little deviations from the measures. Besides, high-rehash designs can comparatively be utilized for access among UES and radio wires in the lodges that outright the traveller information, like a (moving) area of interest. Recalling the arising 6G use cases, explicit prerequisites, new recurrent social events, and key sending conditions, we examine the developments expected to be the course of action of 6G radio and centre affiliation plans.

 

Unravel the mystery of M.Tech in Computer Science

Are you a final-year student? Are you in dilemma about what should be your next step for your career? Is it a job you need after your B.Tech or is it a certification you need to kickstart your career or you need an M.Tech to give a boost to your career? These are quite common questions that dwell in every engineering students mind.

In my old days, I was also had the same state of mind and it got more fuel when I saw that some of my friends started preparing for GRE, TOFEL and some took some MNC based jobs and some joined some started preparing for some government jobs.    

First, let me share my side of the story for going ahead with M.Tech. I saw a few of my seniors work under different IT companies and found there they not only need to be shinning every day but they have to upskill themselves mostly on a regular basis. As most of the curriculum does not cater to the present-day industry needs. Most importantly it is very challenging to upskill and perform in your job on a daily basis.

Though the short-term certifications will earn you various skills unfortunately it will never be enough for you to increase your scale to a different level. Whereas post M.Tech the job perspective and eligibility for your career multiplies exponentially. Not only you are eligible for industry jobs but you can be a part of building an engineering society by producing quality engineers and also can contribute to different research activities and see your creation come live and help society. 

Some students have experienced the importance of having a post-graduation degree, post they had spent around more than 5 years in the industry and had set for the different executive program but most cases these executive programs are not a full-time program and not focused in developing a strong academic background. 

Is GATE is mandatory for perusing M.Tech in Computer Science and Engineering?

GATE is just a competitive examination by which students can be evaluated with a common test thus giving the selectors a common criterion to select candidates. But if you are academically strong then you can peruse M.Tech without GATE.

What awaits for me post M.Tech in Computer Science and Engineering?

The opportunities get increased exponentially post M.Tech. Your option of joining the industry becomes wider with a higher package, along with you can be a part of any academic institute, research institute, government institute, private institute, peruse PhD to name a few.

Which branch should I choose for my M.Tech course of studies?

You can choose any branch of studies for your M.Tech course but as per the regulation of various government bodies and looking at your career it is advisable the course should be relevant to your B.Tech course of studies. 

Where to study M.Tech?

At Adamas University, we design and update our curriculum frequently to meet the changing demand of the present-day industry while making you academically aware of many of your future endeavours.  

Why Computer Science?

“The Computer was born to solve the problem that did not exist before” – Bill Gates.

As a machine reduces the work effort, so does a computer for a typical complex computation. Computer science forces you to deal with a problem in a slightly different way which is a skill that can be applied to life itself. In the era of data, a computer is the most indispensable thing we can think of. Computer science gives you an opportunity in working and understanding hands-on the aspect of data.

Computer Science is the study of principles and the use of computers. The classical areas for a computer science course include discrete mathematics, data structure, theory of computation, compiler design, analysis and designing of Algorithm. The advanced study includes artificial intelligence (AI), computer networks and security, database management systems, computer vision and graphics, numerical analysis, software engineering, bioinformatics.

Apart from this, a computer engineer is supposed to be known as a fluent coder. Coding is the ‘Bread and Butter’ for all computer engineers. Programming or coding is an intriguing sector as it gives us the superpower to regulate computer programs on the go. The main goal for a computer engineer is to make a problem understandable to a machine so that it could solve the problem obligingly. The fluency and smoothness of an application are solely based on the way you design the code. C, the mother of all programming languages, is a general-purpose programming language that is extremely popular, simple, and flexible to use. It helps a programmer to build the base of designing a program.  It is a structured programming language that is machine-independent and extensively used to write various applications, Operating Systems like Windows, and many other complex programs like Oracle database, Git, Python interpreter, and more. Java, a high-level programming language, is also the most popular language for its design structure using object-oriented concepts (OOP). When it comes to the web, Java is unparallel. Most of the web-based applications are based on java. Apart from this, there are several programming languages like c++, python, Matlab, R to name a few.

There are innumerable and varied specialization and career options for a computer engineer. After completing his/her B.Tech degree a student may get absorbed in the software industry or may opt for higher studies. There are multiple sub-division and specializations in Computer Engineering which require applications in various sectors. Student can also pursue B.Tech degree in various applied fields:

  • AI/ML: Artificial Intelligence (AI) are emerging fields that will shape and dominate the future of this universe. Data is one of the most important assets of a company or government agency. It helps us to predict the future based on past experiences. AI has the potential to vastly change the way that humans interact, not only with the digital world but also with each other, through their work and other socioeconomic institutions – for better or for worse. A vast volume of data can be analysed by using a smart alternative, Machine Learning. It can produce an accurate result by designing a fast and efficient model for real-time data.
  • Blockchain: The duration of the course for B.Tech with specialization in blockchain is four years. Blockchain is currently booming and one of the most popular technologies that have invaded to almost every industry in the world. The world is changing its shape towards cryptocurrency. In near future, Bitcoin will be one of the popular transaction media. The main technology behind this is the blockchain. The technology will help the student to learn different algorithms and to curate the bitcoin on their own.
  • Cyber Security: Cybersecurity provides an expertise insight analysis on global security threats. In the world of web, to provide a secure web service is one of the main goals. The course on Cyber Security will help to learn different algorithms along with the expertization on ethical hacking, penetration testing, digital forensics. There are immense career avenues open for specialization in cybersecurity. This includes Security software developer, security analyst, security architect etc.
  • M.Tech Degree in Computer Science: Apart from doing graduation and going for an early job, a student may go for a master’s degree in computer science and engineering along with the specialized degree discussed above.

With the knowledge and concept in the domain, a computer science engineer can be eligible for an immense variety of job opportunities. Some of them are jotted below:

  1. Computer Science engineers are the primary resource of the software industry. With a sound concept in the subject, a student can crack any of the big houses easily.
  2. Government sectors such as I.S.R.O, B.H.E.L, etc are recruiting computer science engineers having a good GATE score.
  3. Interdisciplinary research is a new trend for Computer Science students. Inter-disciplinary subjects such as IoT, Bioinformatics provides a huge contribution in research for computer science students.
  4. Apart from interdisciplinary research, mainstream research in computer science also provides a huge scope for the student both nationally and internationally.

 As a computer science engineer, there are plenty of opportunities in Government sectors as well as private sectors. A focused, sincere and conceptual student has all the possibilities to touch the sky.