Post COVID Career Prospects of M.Sc. Tech (Statistics and Data Science)

In this current scenario i.e. post COVID period data science becomes a new era. Data science has played a vital role in making the policies or decision making in real life world. It is one of the trendiest jobs across the globe in terms of future scope and career stability. Data science is an interdisciplinary subject that includes the use of statistics, big data analytics, machine learning and related aspects in order to understand the problem or phenomena with respect to a set of real-world data. The thrust areas of data science are fraud and risk detection, healthcare, internet search, targeted advertising, advanced image recognition, speech recognition, airline route planning etc. Under health care sector it is having different applications such as medical image analysis, genetics & genomics, drug development, virtual assistance for patients and customer support. Thus, data science has major demand in many organization around the globe. In today’s career-oriented world, students are confused on choosing the right subject after completing graduation that will help them to get a good placement in the job enterprise. After graduation, numerous options like master degree in the general subjects, or in various professional courses confuse the students to take the right decision. Today, both students and their parents are seeking for job-centric programs, though general study programs are mostly preferred as their first choice. A good choice can be a program that is a combination of both general and professional courses. It is always better to choose a program that is a natural progression of the existing skills and qualifications along with some professional development skills.

The Role of Statistics and Data Science in Today’s World:
The pursuit of a career in Statistics is in high demand today. With a degree in Statistics, career opportunities are boundless. Statisticians have been known as Economists, Scientists, Mathematicians, Field Investigator or Qualitative Researcher. The ‘data-hungry’ modern world now calls them data analyst, business analysts, data scientists, quality and risk analysts. Data Science has become an integral contributor to success in career opportunities. Data Scientists and Data Analytics are in high demand in today’s job world. Data Science based enterprises are the largest companies in the entire world. The famous websites like Google, Amazon, and Facebook, use data science to create algorithms that improve customer satisfaction, which in turn maximizes the profit. Thus, with a degree in Data Science, one can work with high-tech companies like Google, Amazon, LinkedIn, Facebook, banking and financial companies like ICICI Bank, Axis Bank, or research firms like McKenzie, Deloitte.

So, according to the trend of the modern job world, the best option is to choose a program in Statistics or Data Science. But, can one pursue both Statistics and Data Science at the same time? Yes, the Department of Mathematics, Adamas University is offering such a program which is a combination of both Statistics and Data Science. The program name is ‘M.Sc. (Tech.) in Statistics and Data Science’. This program is also a combination of both general and professional courses, Statistics, being a general subject and Data Science, a professional course.

M.Sc. Tech (Statistics and Data Science) program is a two years (four semesters) post-graduate degree course which combines Statistics, Mathematics and Computer Science with applications to Data Science and Data Analysis to meet the demand of today’s job world. From Probability Theory and Statistics to Statistical Inference, from Applied Statistics to Statistical Modeling, from Problem Solving to Number Theory, from Computer Programming to Data Mining, the program is also offering a number of optional papers, a few of which are Big Data Analytics, Cryptography and Network Security, and Artificial Intelligence. Besides these, the program also offers summer internship and Project/Dissertation. In summer internship, a student may choose to visit relevant institute or industry according to the availability. The project/Dissertation helps the students to explore and strengthen the understanding of fundamentals through practical application of theoretical concepts.
On completion of the program, a student will
• Be acquainted with the various Statistical tools useful for Data Analysis
• Develop programming skills
• Acquire knowledge on Data Analytics and Data Mining
• Learn the concepts of Data Structures
• Develop a conceptual understanding on Network Security
Eligibility Criteria for the Program:
Graduate student having Statistics/Mathematics/Economics/Physics as compulsory subject, or graduate students in Data Science, or students having a B.Tech. degree in IT/CSE/ECE or BCA or other relevant stream with at least 50% marks are eligible to apply for this course.

Career Prospects:
From careers in IT sector to technological companies, Data Science professionals can choose their career in a numerous field including business, industry, agriculture, government and private sectors, computer science, and software development.
A few job roles available for a student after completion of the program are:
(i) Data Scientist: Data scientists also called analytical experts utilize their skills in both social science and technology to manage all kinds of data. A data scientist involves in arranging and analyzing disorganized and unstructured data, from numerous sources like smart devices, social media feeds, emails, industry, health science, environmental data.
(ii) Data Analyst: The role of a Data Analyst is to figure out a market trend. The data analyst serves as a caretaker for an organization’s data and as such shareholders are able to understand data and use it to make tactical business decisions.
(iii) Statistician: A Statistician deals with gathering, analyzing and interpreting to aid in many businesses and decision-making process. The Statisticians apply statistical models and methods to real-world problems. They analyse, gather and interpret data to help draw valid conclusions.
(iv) Forecasting Analyst: The task of a Forecasting Analyst includes tracking, analyzing, and evaluating operations in order to provide accurate forecasts. Forecasting analysts use current data of the company to predict future level production and sales. By examining inventory levels, demand for products or services, and speed of production, they ascertain a company’s optimal production levels and possible future sales.
(v) Data Manager: Data Manager are involved in making and implementing policies for effective data management, framing management techniques for quality data collection to confirm adequacy, accuracy and validity of data. They are also involved in planning and executing efficient and secure procedures for data management and data analysis with attention to all procedural aspects

Conclusion:
From above discussion we can see that a student with master degree in Statistics and Data Science has numerous career opportunities and so this program is recommended to graduate students seeking for a good career opportunity in the present scenario of the job world.

Green Hydrogen – A New Fuel of the Future

India is witnessing the multitude of benefits of renewable energy, including increased access to electricity, reduced local air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions, and lower energy imports. There are easy ways to boost renewable energy’s position in the grid as well as end-use industries like transportation and industrial. Nonetheless, there remain economic, technological, and feasibility challenges to fully electrifying all existing energy usage, limiting the extent to which renewable power may directly replace fossil fuels. Hydrogen is already widely employed, particularly as an industrial feedstock in the production of ammonia-based fertilizers. Most of the hydrogen is produced through methane reforming, which results in large carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies can collect these emissions, but they are yet undeveloped in India.

Hydrogen produced using electrolysis powered by renewable energy—green hydrogen—and its use in fuel cells has a long history of promising a pathway to a global clean energy economy yet failing to deliver. Electrolysis, where water (H2O) is split into its component parts using electricity, is an alternate means of processing. While there is important research activity on electrolysis, photolysis and biogenic hydrogen production methods, these low-carbon emission technologies have not yet been implemented on a scale. This is partially due to today’s low-carbon hydrogen production costs that are higher than fossil fuel-based hydrogen or other fossil-fuel alternatives. However, it is possible that these costs could achieve equilibrium in the future with green hydrogen in desirable regions undercutting grey hydrogen. This is made more possible in India, where tariffs on renewable energy are already among the lowest in the world and natural gas supplies are low and expensive. The capital cost of electrolysers, along with energy costs, is another significant factor for reducing the cost of green hydrogen. With a ramp-up in implementation, these are likely to continue to decline, since most electrolysers are produced on a relatively small scale today.

Fresh water resources make up around 2.5 percent of the total amount of water on the planet. As shown in figure 1, fortunately, the accessible seawater resource is 39 times that of fresh water. Water use due to electrolysis should, however, not be viewed as gradually using up the water resource, because when green hydrogen is oxidized (by combustion or via a fuel cell) it yields the same amount of water as was originally electrolyzed. This may enter the atmosphere as water vapor or be condensed at the point of use and recovered as liquid water. Moreover, the production of green hydrogen simultaneously produces oxygen in the exact amount required to oxidize the hydrogen, this is an important characteristic, because atmospheric oxygen depletion is contributing to global warming. 

Figure 1: Annual water requirement of Green Hydrogen production relative to                 Earth’s water resources. [Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1464285921006581]
Figure 1: Annual water requirement of Green Hydrogen production relative to Earth’s water resources.
[Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1464285921006581]

Green hydrogen provides India with major opportunities to grow into a new field of renewable energy technology, building domestic manufacturing expertise to supply the Indian market as well as overseas. Electrolysers would be the principal technology of significance. There are currently no major Indian producers of this technology, with electrolysers being imported from Germany, Norwegian or Japanese companies currently in use in India.

Globally, the momentum for hydrogen and fuel cell technology is rising, with market forecasts ranging from $2.5 trillion to $11.7 trillion by 2050. India has the capacity to manufacture more than its domestic demand, large quantities of low-cost, low green hydrogen. Significant economic value could be produced by exploiting the country’s diverse range of hydrogen production feedstocks to produce hydrogen for export. To manufacture hydrogen for sale, India has many strategic advantages, as depicted in the figure 2 below:

Figure 2: Strategic Advantages of Green Hydrogen in India; Source: Self-evaluation
Figure 2: Strategic Advantages of Green Hydrogen in India; Source: Self-evaluation

Green hydrogen is therefore widely viewed as the ‘net zero’ fuel for our future energy system, with green oxygen replenishing the associated consumption of atmospheric oxygen. However, it should be noted that some of the hydrogen will be required as a feedstock (e.g., for ammonia and methanol production) rather than as a fuel, and some of the green oxygen will be applied to industrial processes and water oxygenation as opposed to being vented to the atmosphere. For instance, hydrogen and nitrogen will be carried into plants in the form of ammonium, and oxygen will be used by the steel industry. It is therefore important to identify synergies between the electrolysers’ need for water and the use of both green hydrogen and oxygen, because these could accelerate the deployment of electrolysis in the limited period, we have left to combat climate change.

As a result, green hydrogen and its derivatives are projected to play a crucial role in global decarbonization at scale due to their adaptability, which allows them to be used in a variety of applications and decarbonizes hard-to-abate sectors.

Know the Game: Augment your career with Skills, Competencies, and Expertise in the niche segment of Health Geo-Informatics

The WHO has taken pledge to help countries and partners in making informed public health choices more quickly and to spread geospatial knowledge throughout the organization by connecting maps, apps, data, and people. Because of this change in emphasis, organizations all around the world are depending more and more on location intelligence to make smarter public health decisions. Human services and health geoinformatics occupations are in greater demand than ever.

John Snow’s ground-breaking work serves as an example of the effectiveness of mapping and geographic systems in addressing the cholera pandemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a long history of analyzing spatial distribution and risk factor patterns, identifying, preventing, and controlling diseases, and enhancing the effectiveness of public health initiatives. Making timely and trustworthy judgments that have the potential to save many lives is made possible by using GIS to connect spatial representation and public health planning. To name a few, 15 of the 17 health-related SDGs rely on GIS, for example, by monitoring air, water quality, and sanitation, neglected tropical diseases (malaria, guinea worm, snake bites), Polio, as well as health emergencies. Geoinformatics is defined as an academic discipline or career of working with geographical data for better understanding and interpretation of human interaction with the earth’s surface. It encompasses several technologies, approaches, processes, and methods to interpret and discourse spatial questions that necessitate spatial sense to address it. ESRI comments that “Hundreds of thousands of organizations in virtually every field are using GIS to make maps that communicate, perform analysis, share information, and solve complex problems around the world. This is changing the way the world works.”

Geoinformatics – Future Science
Figure 1. Geoinformatics – Future Science (Conceptualized and compiled by Dr. Anu Rai)

With its underlying capacity, Geoinformatics is emerging as a billion-dollar industry and offers lucrative opportunities to its professionals and trainers. In order to promote better public health planning and decision-making, geospatial technology, namely Health Geoinformatics, offers spatial representation of data. It is a niche segment of Geoinformatics and has significant uses in the fields of medicine and global health, but many nations currently limited or no access to these advantages in order to improve their health information systems. However, in post pandemic era, WHO and partner countries aggressively acknowledge and recommend the application of Geoinformatics in addressing public health issues.  WHO has taken pledge to help countries and partners in making informed public health choices more quickly and to spread geospatial knowledge throughout the organization by connecting maps, apps, data, and people. The WHO GIS Centre for Health wants to have a direct and long-lasting influence on the public by increasing its engagement with partners. Supporting geospatial data and analytics to enhance adherence and stewardship with WHO Standard Operating Procedures for maps and Web GIS applications are a few examples of the specific services offered by WHO. The purpose of such services is to improve national, regional, and analytical data as well as the health information system in order to boost the Member States’ and Partners’ effective use of GIS. Because of this change in emphasis, organizations all around the world are depending more and more on location intelligence to make smarter public health decisions. Human services and health geoinformatics occupations are in greater demand than ever. In order to forecast and evaluate industry trends utilizing a range of data and pro-actively build solutions and messaging to address important issues, drivers, and challenges, health GIS analysts or public health solution managers work closely with teams in varied domains of public health, human services, hospitals, insurance, managed health care systems, and environmental health. Despite corporate and public jobs and entrepreneurial opportunities, GIS analysts are highly engaged in investigating, understanding, and developing new businesses in areas underserved or not currently served with GIS applications in the health and human services space. This creates a new field of opportunity for work with product development as a customer advocate for the requirements of the health and human services sector.

In my academic career as an educator of Geography and Geoinformatics, I have often noticed curiosity among youngsters about career opportunities with the Health Geography and Geoinformatics, irrespective of the discipline and domain of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees they hold. I would answer that if you are interested to play with the nuts and bolts of spatial health science, the Post Graduate Program on Geography and Geoinformatics is a good option for you. You may select diverse fields of Health Geoinformatics depending on the expertise of the domain varying from map making to app development. You can also opt for jobs in Public Health firms that include diverse skill-based jobs in the field of marketing development and testing and even entrepreneurship. Research-based course experience also opens huge job prospects in development and planning commission, scientists in HRD, and other research institutions in India and abroad. Application of neo-geographical tools, statistical algorithms, machine learning, multi-criterion decision-making techniques, computer-programming, SQLs, text-analytics and learning and practices of GIS and statistical packages that enable GI Scientists to solve the multifaceted real-life problem has opened extensive career opportunities to practitioners of geoinformatics in the field of public health data science as well. Health data scientists, data analysts, big data analysts, spatial data analysts, etc. are some of the lucrative jobs paying high salary packages to deserving candidates. So, if spatial logic of health attracts you, Health Geoinformatics is the best option to augment your career with skills, competencies, and expertise.

For such more examples you may also visit the sites of:

How to Make Pharmacy Graduate Resume

Pharmacists are at a pinnacle in the ability to manage, cure and prevent disease. Today, the pharmacist plays an essential role as part of the healthcare management team along with doctors. The post covid episode of the market produce a huge requirement of fresher students in healthcare management system especially in sterile manufacturing like vaccine or other injectables like monoclonal antibodies. India practically ensures a bright future for the fresher students who are entering the profession. Sooner the fourth-year students will graduate from Pharmacy school. There is only one step left between the students and the job of their dreams. And there should not be any mistake for getting ready for the interview. Foremost part to entry through the gateway to get those positions in industry required one small document the Resume. Listed below are some basic steps involved in writing of a standard quality resume:

  1. The resume should represent about the candidate but it should do so in a certain format and cover specific areas sometimes specified by the school also.
  2. The information in resume should be clear, succinct and mistake-free. grammatical errors that a fresh pair of eyes might catch that’s why review by other persons is needed. using white or off-white paper for your resume is essential.
  3. Reachable contact numbers and email id should be provided along with the full name.
  4. Any kind of unethical practice like exaggerating or claiming things like research activities or scholarships that you are not involved with can put candidates blacklisted to the company, that’s why fabrication of the resume unethically is not good and unwise.
  5. Try to incorporate the research activities you have done in your b. schooling in your resume. If you have published any review or research article in peer review journal may be with your teachers or you have received any prize please mention. There is nothing wrong with describing these or any awards you have received.
  6. get register your name in students’ pharmaceutical associations or may be in IPA, IPGA etc. this kind of membership also increases the friend circle of the newcomer.
  7. Place the most important information about yourself first, but make sure your honours and awards are near the top of the list as well. Describe anything different about your strong point like leadership capability that will allow you to get interested to the recruiter.
  8. If you’re appearing for an interview where experience is mandatory for a particular field just make caps or bold the areas related to that.
  9. In the cover letter the reason for applying the job is required to mention and which should be brief and to the point. Sometimes the recruiter asked to mention the exact position applied like executive or sr. executive so that also should be written.
  10. Though the length of your resume varies depending on an individual’s experiences, but generally it should be within one page or two maxima. All the details you are providing should be pointwise and in a brief manner. The skill and strength should be mentioned in case of fresher candidate and using the powerful words like Detail-orientated, Communication, Time-management, Empathy, Teamwork 
  11. References can be provided along with the addresses and mobile numbers but better to give the contacts of some senior faculty or managers you know.
  12. some other points should not get missed out like experience in MS word, excel, and database management system etc. and reverse chronological order for writing.
  13. Lastly the status of the pharmacy license of PCI should also be mentioned.

Digitalization in Marketing Process-A New Skill in Marketing Specialization

Marketing is the process that satisfies human and social needs. It is nothing but a value-creation process. If we look into the marketing process, the job of most marketers is to design and develop the value in such a way that attracts customers and makes them happy buying. But this scenario is changing very rapidly due to the pandemic and the huge development of digital technology. Now market and marketing processes are more digitalized than the conventional marketing system. The job of a salesman is changing to the digital selling process. Marketers need not make a flow-up plan, it is automatically set up by the technology and responses are coming within a specific time. So, the process becomes more hybrid through embarked digitalization in the system. Therefore, it is imperative that using of digital technology in marketing and its associated function is a substitute for marketing success. Looking into this, concept marketers are focusing more on digital expert professionals than the salesman. Due to the huge demand for this, manpower is scarce. This is one part of the other way the process of marketing is also changing. Like the development of promotion strategy, communicate with the customers and find out the most effective methods for approaching customers. Though all these are experience stages, on the other side to get succeed in the fast-paced environment they always look into the audience’s requirements, it is difficult to stay ahead of the audience because market nature is monopolistic.

The recent trend in the Marketing Process:

Mass marketing converted into customized marketing and especially influencer marketing which is more common through digital technology like artificial intelligence, and machine learning, Marketers identify the preference of buying of customers and they try to influence them by offering more customized products. Therefore, targeting an individual is much easier than the conventional process. Development of user-generated content is another tool to identify prospects, it is a technique that allows the customer to design their product, and using digital space marketers publish those products on the web and counts the most effective design out of the available design and makes the product based on these design.  Companies also do marketing through publicize the video content and using web analytics they publish it through various social media like various web pages, Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn, and personalizing the email. This video makes confidence the buyer about product information, brand, service, and other components associated with the product. It applies to business to business and business to consumer and both the process learn and evaluate the impact of promotion using video content in social media which makes their marketing promotion faster.   The current market depends on millennials and Gen Z, they are more inclined toward digital process and most of them prefer digital buying process, not only digital buying but also other parts of marketing, they prefer digitalization. Therefore, to enhance their buying power, there is a need for mobile-optimized digital services which may be an important part for business owners and houses who are looking to attract fast-paced tech-savvy generations.

Ephemeral content is a new arena of digital marketing. Here company publishes its information through social media and they always stay on social media through standard posts, videos, and live events. Customer is not able to show the message if they do not save it or achieve it. Therefore, it makes curiosity customers give more concentration on the information. It is an effective platform for marketing campaigns.

Application of Digital Technology in Marketing

 Artificial Intelligence in marketing is mainly developed with the help of three main marketing disciplines research, strategy, and action, and three levels of AI intelligence, that is, mechanical, thinking, and feeling AI. While mechanical AI entails automation of repetitive and routine tasks mainly covering market research, strategy, and standardization, thinking AI relates to processing data for new insights and decision-making, and feeling AI refers to interactions with humans or analyzing human feelings and emotions. Another, important techniques are big data analytics, using these techniques marketers predict the outcome of the customers and it also techniques which help marketers to identify the preference, maintain inventory management, and manage distribution and logistics system. Machine learning is another digitalized technique that helps marketers to do proper market segmentation, it processes customer data and analyzes it for discovering recurring patterns across various features. It helps to do proper clustering of different various demographic segments and helps to measure the preference difference between various demographic segments. Using blockchain analysis marketers maintain the logistics system of the firms and maintain a smooth and faster delivery system. One other important area used by blockchain technology like user verification, Blockchain can be employed through advertisement networks and reduce the interface of agents and middlemen and help those users who want the information by clicking through the ad system and combat fraud. It helps advertisers to identify the source of fraud and advertisers can make more user interface design.

Therefore, digital technology must be not only an effective tool for modern marketing but in the future, it should be the only way for business growth and survival. Most large-scale firms have started their marketing practices and maintain all the marketing processes from taking the order to supplying feedback through digital space. In India, most middle-order firms were trying to adopt the blended process, with a few parts of technology-based and another part traditional because of the nature of Indian consumers. It is a challenging task for a small firm because its market and investment level is low. Therefore, the marketing professionals need to develop some skills that small firms can be benefitted without much more investment. Last but not the list, it can be commented that the traditional skill of marketing will not work for long. Digitalized skills need to learn by the marketing professionals at the time of career selection. Few specialized skills need to be imparted to get a better market understanding.  

Potentiality of Corn Bio-Fuel in Indian Future Mobility

Corn is grown and appropriated not as a food but also put to use to generate ethanol, which can be used as fuel to operate internal combustion engines in order to avoid the usage of exhaustible resources. The price of the liquid fuels has been increasing gradually in India, it causes harmful emissions as well, and the effect can be noticed if we see the air quality index of different states. In order to search for an alternative, we need to shift our view towards bio-diesel which can be used as the substitute of the exhaustible resources and it produces less harmful gases. One of the potential resources for producing bio-diesel in India is corn, which is largely cultivated crop in Northern India. The total number of vehicles have been increased from 5.4 million to 210 million between 2005 and 2015 in India. Due to the uncontrolled mobility in urban areas, the environment has been affected from the exhaust gases so badly in many states. In few major metropolitan cities, the pollution level has crossed the permissible limit of PM2.5, which is set up by WHO. According to the WHO database, 14 out of 15 most polluted cities in the world, belongs to India only, Kanpur tops the list of the most polluted cities in the entire world with 173 micrograms per cubic meter and Delhi secures the sixth position with pollution level of 141 micrograms per cubic meter according to the PM2.5 database in 2016. Total 11% of the carbon emission is accounted from the transportation; it was 24% in 1971. The effective move, which was taken by the Indian government, was switching to CNG and India operates maximum buses on the road, fuelled by CNG. This country owns 11.75% of total natural gas operated vehicles and holds the third place, running behind China (23%) and Iran (17%). By 2030, India is aiming to be the third largest automobile manufacturing country after USA and China and this is the high time to impart innovations to this specific domain, which can cause less PM, CO2, NOx and SOx emission. Biofuels have great future prospects in developing nations due to energy insecurity. Large agricultural sector can be a good support in order to produce biodiesels from crops. Shuit et. Al [3] stated that the fourth assessment report of IPCC concludes that the reason behind global warming for last 50 years, mostly due to emission of harmful CO2, nitrous oxide and methane. Transportation has been identified as the major source of air pollution in megacities since last century. The bad effect of motorization leads more petroleum-based fuels to be used in road transport that directly affects the human health. On the basis of an analysis, which has been done by taking data of 50 countries and 35 urban areas that vehicle per capita has been increased at the same rate as income per capita. Countries like India, China and Pakistan where growth rate of passenger cars are double than that of income per capita. India has secured the place in top 10 among biggest emitters of atmospheric pollutants. Road fuel consumption is nearly doubled in every ten years since 1975. Biofuel can be used to meet the future needs of mobility and it can safeguard the environment and human health as it does not contain any sulphur or metals, which contribute to the acid rain by producing sulphuric acid. Peng et al. investigated different parameters and the limited data projected that exhaust emission in terms of total vapour phase hydrocarbons, total carbonyl compounds, total poly aromatic hydrocarbons etc. were lower when biodiesel was used. Global energy demand will be increased by 4.6%, almost 70% of it will be utilized in global emerging markets and developing economics. Global CO2 emission is heading towards the second largest annual increase ever in 2021, coal demand is set exceed the demand of 2019 and approaching towards the 2014 peak. Utilization of natural gas is being increased by 3.1% in 202. Renewable sources retain the success in these days in power, industry, transport and heating sectors. A report named Net Zero by 2050: A road map for the global energy sector stated that 7 Gt of CO2 has been emitted from global transport sector in 2019 and it is expected that it will be around 5.5 Gt by 2030 if we use the other environment friendly fuel and 0.7 Gt by 2050.  As per the report published by Indian government on World Bio-Fuel Day named Bio-Fuels towards Atmanirbhar Bharat  it is concluded that biodiesels can enhance India’s energy security and reduce petroleum dependency. Few potential resources have been identified in order to get bio fuel from the crops and government is implementing policies to spread the awareness among citizens. India aiming to produce 20% ethanol blended biofuel by 2030 and 3% contributor to global ethanol production. Therefore, many initiatives have been taken to produce bio-fuel at higher rate in India using different techniques and waste management strategies.

Apart from USA and Brazil, many countries have been producing bio-ethanol to meet the continuously increasing need. In India, per year 426 crore litres bio-ethanol is being produced from molasses-based distilleries and 258 crore from grain-based distilleries. It has been proposed to increase 760 crore and 740 crore respectively. Indian government has given emphasize on producing bio-ethanol from grains in last few years.

The world’s corn production capacity is near about 1.05 million thousand tons, whereas the USA tops the list of producing corn which is estimated at 360,252 thousand tons. In 2020, India has produced 30,250 thousand tons of corn. It was 5101 thousand tons in 1971 and it is growing at the rate of 4.67%. According to ICAR, India secures 4th in area and 7th in production among the maize producing countries. Corn production area has been increased to 9.2 million ha during 2018-2019. Average productivity has increased by 5.42 times from 547 kg/ha to 2965 kg/ha, productivity in India is almost half of the world.

Madhya Pradesh (15%) and Karnataka (15%) clench the first position in terms of highest cornfield area accompanied by Maharashtra (10%), Rajasthan (9%) and Uttar Pradesh (5%). Whereas Andhra Pradesh secures the top position in terms of corn production, it is as high as 12 tonne per ha. Looking at the statistics of corn production and the potentiality for bio-ethanol to be used as fuel, it is said that corn can be one of the major grain resources in India to produce ethanol. Chemical composition of corn revels that it contains 72% starch, 9.5% fiber,9.5% protein and 4.3% oil. It is investigated that 56 lbs of corn can produce 30.7 lbs of starch or 35 lbs of sweeteners or 21 lbs of polylactic acid polymers and can produce 2.87 gallons of ethanol. This ethanol can be used with diesel to improve the emission and it also fulfils the need of the alternative fuel in the automobile sector in India.

Ethanol production from corn: Farm to Fermentation

Corn has to undergo many processes to be considered ready for ethanol production. The first step is to remove the kernels from the cob, this process is known as postharvest where all the stones, soil, sticks, etc. are removed by means of scalpers. A huge bio-technical is associated followed by three steps –

  • Starch is to be converted to fermentable sugar by means of milling, liquefaction, and saccharification (enzyme-based).
  • Fermentation, where yeast helps these sugars to convert into ethanol.
  • Generated ethanol is taken out from other by-products using the distillation process.

Fig. 2: Schematic diagram of ethanol production from corn [icon courtesy: www.nounprojects.com]

Milling is the first step of the biotechnical process and it can be classified into two main categories namely wet milling and dry milling. The main purpose of the process is to break-down the starch into simple sugar components whereas the liquefaction process is done in order to make the simple sugar soft for an efficient enzymatic digestion. Indian government has paid attention to establish such plants to produce ethanol to be used with diesel to meet the demand. And, obviously corn can be the one of the resources for the same.

Better Emission

This is the need of the hour to replace authentic fuel in automobiles as it emits harmful components like CO, CO2, NO2 etc. Bio-fuel helps engine to perform and emit less pollutant. Many additives can be used to improve the performance in terms of power generation and speed.  Manigadan S. et al. [12] investigated the emission characteristics of corn oil blended with methyl ester and oxygenated additives. In this study, BSFC and BP have been increased by 6.3% and 22.01% respectively. And, 16% reduction in NOx emission has been observed, Titanium di-oxide (TiO2) has been used as additive. But, many oxygenated nanoparticles like aluminium oxide etc. can be used to improve the performance, as well.

 

Career Prospects in Cyber security

Multinational companies are spending fortunes to protect and secure their systems, sensitive data, networks, and privacies from cybercriminals. After the pandemic, with proliferation of internet use and technology use, these cyber attacks become more refined and inventive, forcing the organizations to depend on the proficiency of the cybersecurity professionals.

As per CyberSeek report, around half million cybersecurity professionals are required to fulfill the gap. It is best time to become a cybersecurity professional because of this rising demand and small talent pool. There are some lucrative job opportunities available for those persons with relative technology focused skill. Even if someone does not have prior experience in cyber security domain, getting a job in this domain is possible. With the increase of frequency in cyber-attacks, almost all the organizations are recruiting to defend against these kinds of threats. There are various career paths available for the students who interested in making the career out of cyber security professional.

Like machine learning and data science, Cyber security career paths are also multidirectional as well as non-linear. Once someone enters the domain, his/her career can go in any direction. Along with that there are also feeder roles like risk analyst, software engineer, network administrator which can be used as a beginner level cyber security professional.

When anyone thinks of cybersecurity jobs, generally the first think comes into our mind is someone trying penetrate the networks or systems which is basically penetration testing or ethical hacking. But this notion is nothing but the tip of an iceberg. Cybersecurity is bigger than that. It contains various sub categories and specialization and all of these can be broadly categories in to two parts i.e., Infrastructure management and Security and Risk Management.

Infrastructure Security

Networking infrastructures are extremely important to multinational business organizations. Cybercriminals can readily access and exploit sensitive resources and information if they are not properly protected. Cybersecurity specialists must design, firewalls, virtual private networks, application security, and many more to mitigate security and data breaches.

Common job roles for the protection of infrastructure are given below:

  • Security Operations Center (SOC) analyst
  • Security infrastructure engineer
  • Cybersecurity engineer
  • Security architect
  • Cloud security engineer

Security and Risk Management

Security and risk management actually constitute ensuring that businesses follow security regulations and procedures, as well as undertaking risk assessment to determine security flaws in tangible infrastructure, business applications, and data. Penetration testing and compliance are useful roles in this niche. In fact, compliance has become so critical that some industries even have entire squad devoted entirely to data governance and privacy protection.

Common job roles for Security and Risk Management are given below:

  • Penetration tester
  • Data privacy and security analyst
  • Security compliance analyst
  • Information security analyst
  • Cyber Security Incident Response Analyst

Skill requirement for cybersecurity

Even though cybersecurity jobs may appear to be extremely specialized and computational-intensive, these skilled persons have the know-how of various different but interrelated domains. It is expected that these professionals have some specific skill sets in both hard skill sets which are scripting, system administration and networking and soft skill sets which are creative thinking and communication. Basically, one needs to constantly reinvent and learn upcoming technologies.

Technical Skills:

  • In terms of essential cybersecurity skills, Networking tops the list. If one wants to aspire to become a penetration tester or network security engineer, that person needs to fully grasp underlying mechanisms various networking protocols and principles.
  • Most network components and intrusion prevention systems run Linux as their operating system. Learning Linux helps to collect security data and perform security toughening.
  • System administration is indispensable for cyber security specialists. Can user, for example, dictate what happens after downloading malware on windows operating system or extract files from a pc without knowing the log in credentials?
  • To detect security loopholes in networks or security devices, it is necessary to have an outlook like a cybercriminal. White hat hackers try to safeguard data from both outside and inside threats by identifying vulnerabilities in systems that could be reduced. White hats are mainly utilized by the intended system’s owner and are handsomely compensated for their efforts. Their practice is not illegal since it is performed with the approval of the system owner.
  • To become a cybersecurity practitioner, you wouldn’t need to be an extremely skilled programmer, but you must handle situations with an algorithmic mindset. Scripting is a wonderful way to learn the underlying working principles of hardware and software.
  • Even though you wouldn’t want to become a programmer, it’s important to understand enough to read code.
  • To run malware analysis, cybersecurity professionals ought to be accustomed with all virtual machine platforms.

 Soft Skills

  • Communication: You will need to invest a considerable amount of time training end users on how to set up their machines or implement security measures.
  • New security hazards emerge all the time, so you must be able to continuously acquire new skills and techniques.
  • On a regular basis, cybersecurity entails finding solutions to issues. If you really do not like to indulge in solving problems, a profession in cybersecurity is probably not just for you.

 Top Cybersecurity Job roles: From beginner level to executive level

There are many high-paying, versatile full-time job vacancies in the industry. Due to the sheer world – wide scarcity of skilled talent pool, numerous recruiters are offering entry-level salaries ranging from Rs. ₹10L to ₹12L. Cybersecurity directors and chief information security officers (CISOs), for example, can obtain more than ₹90L per year.

  • Cybersecurity Analyst: Security Operations Centre (SOC) analyst concentrates on the front-line attack detection. Cybersecurity analysts work in dedicated security hubs and must be competent in a variety of areas such as log analysis, Wireshark, malware analysis, and programming. A SOC analyst’s primary responsibility is to monitor network data. This particular job role has the potential to be used as a fantastic launchpad for next level of the roles.
  • Penetration Tester: Penetration testers, also known as white hat hackers, are one of the most in-demand job positions in the cybersecurity industry. They are in charge of identifying and analyzing security flaws in organizational IT infrastructure along with that a penetration tester are asked to prepare a detailed report about their observations and procedures. Penetration testing is not a low-wage job rather it attracts one of the most handsome salaries in the industry.
  • Cybersecurity Engineer: Cybersecurity engineers, like software engineers, create technologies that protect computer architecture. Their commitment is to foresee network security loopholes, which necessitates the installation of firewalls, the use of encryption software, and the revamping of patches. A few years of experience and a strong command in various scripting languages are required to become a cybersecurity engineer.      

Post–Pandemic Career opportunities in Digital Content Creation as YouTuber and Vlogger

In this digital age, given a boost of two years of pandemic digital content creation became a very lucrative career option. According to a report by Oxford Economics, YouTube’s creative ecosystem supported 6,83,900 full-time equivalent jobs and contributed INR 6,800 CR to the economy of India in 2020. Facebook, Instagram and YouTube are some of the biggest platforms facilitating digital content creation all around the world. In 2005, the world’s first YouTube video titled Me at the Zoo was uploaded by YouTube’s co-founder Jawed Karim and got around 171 million views. Nearly a decade later in 2014, India had about 16 YouTube channels that had crossed the million-subscriber threshold. Today, there are more than 2,500 YouTube channels with over one million subscribers. 

Indian YouTube channels lead the YouTube game globally with Indian music label and movie studio T-Series having 216 million subscribers, the world’s largest number of subscribers on YouTube, followed by PewDiePie (110 million subscribers). The top five of the top 20 YouTube channels around the world are Indian—SET India (133 million subscribers), Zee Music Company (84 million), Zee TV (62.2 million) and so on. Arvind Arora, who owns the short videos channel A2 Motivation (13.7 million subscribers), is an individual YouTuber with more than four billion views, the highest in India. (The report is according to the Financial Express).

According to YouTube verticals like music, entertainment, food, beauty, comedy, lifestyle, and technology continue to gain momentum, and creators like Bhuvan Bam, Prajakta Kohli, Ashish Chanchlani, Nisha Madhulika, Kabita’s Kitchen, and Technical Guruji have shown immense growth in the last few years. Content around vocational skills like gardening and photography has also expanded with creators like Mad Gardener and Pixel Village gaining popularity. Gaming is yet another genre that has seen phenomenal growth in the last couple of years, with creators like Carry Minati, Dynamo Gaming and Mortal reaching millions of subscribers.  

It is one of the leading social media platforms and has taken the world of the Internet by storm. A platform that provides you with the golden opportunity to ‘make it big’, show the world your concealed creative side and express your opinions at a global level. With the world becoming digitized by the second and the boom of smartphones, this red and white play button has given birth to a new profession called YouTuber.

YouTubing is one of the most upcoming and promising careers in contemporary times. It is a field that offers tremendous scope for growth and other benefits such as flexibility of work, the ability to express yourself, opportunities to showcase your creativity, and a shot at earning popularity and fame.

While it may not be a full-time career option right off the bat, over time you can make it your profession like the many other YouTubers before you.

How to Start a Career as a YouTuber?

Creating a channel and making it successful would require a lot of hard work and perseverance on your part. Making a career out of YouTube is not about coming up with a single viral video and getting shot up to fame, it requires careful content development, distribution, and promotion to be sustainable.

  • Choose the Genre and Motive for your Channel

This is a crucial step as it will help you choose the type of content you’ll create and will reflect the message you want to send out to the masses. It can be anything ranging from beauty and fashion to comedy, gaming or technology. The most common categories/genres of content on YouTube channels such as Beauty, Fashion, Animation, Kids, Comedy, Vlog, Pranks, Music (including covers), Travel, Dance, Education, Information/Knowledge, Art and DIYs, Cookery, Technology, Gaming, Sports, News, Motivation/Inspiration, Health.\

  • Determine a unique Style and Voice

YouTube channel’s style will often be a reflection of the personality and unique individuality. It can come from the way you talk, the views you express, any catchphrases/taglines, your dressing style, or even the causes you stand for. A fresh and original voice are an essential element for making your channel stand out from the noise.

  • Develop and polish the Content

Content is the heart and soul of any YouTube video. The video cannot get by on presentation alone, and there needs to be strong content backing it up. One must spend proper time conceptualizing your ideas, writing content/script, and editing it to polish and perfect it. It should be relevant 

  • Use the Right Equipment

Poor video or audio quality sends a message to the user that very little work has been put into the development of the content. Thus, it is highly suggested you invest in a good camera (DSLR/ point-and-shoot), quality lighting and sound equipment (microphone). Even a good quality mobile is enough to shoot. 

  • Work on Filming and Editing Techniques

Good editing and filming can go a long way in increasing the virality of videos. They are the two most crucial elements that determine the final quality of your videos, and thus cannot be ignored.

Make it a point that you use the right lighting settings and filming techniques while filming your videos. Knowledge of the basics of photography and filming (camera angles, lighting, aperture, shutter speed, framing, etc.) 

  • Customize the Channel Page

YouTube gives the chance to reflect the voice and identity of your channel through your channel page too. There are many ways to personalise the page – you can edit the layout so that visitors see the content you want them to see first, add a channel trailer, post a custom thumbnail to give your channel its identity, and also display vibrant artwork as your cover picture to make it look fresh and draw attention.

  • Choose Relevant Titles and Tags

The title of your video and the tags you use help to ensure that your video gets featured in searches and ultimately starts getting noticed by a wider audience. Tags are basically descriptive keywords you can add to your video to tell YouTube what your video is about, and thus increase the likelihood of it being displayed in searches related to those keywords. There are many relevant free keyword tools available online. The title of the video is equally important since it conveys to the audience what your video is about. A clickable, descriptive and attractive title also helps in ranking your content on YouTube search.

  • Use social media for better promotion

Social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, Pinterest, not only help to increase the reach of your content, these will also help to stay in touch with your fans and get more likes, comments and shares. Any popular YouTube channel or YouTuber, and would see that they maintain an active presence on multiple online channels. 

  • Stay Engaged with the viewers and Subscriber

YouTubers leverage their fame and subscribers to gain popularity for their videos, distribute their content, and highlight other brands’ products to make more money in addition to what they make off YouTube. For this reason, an engaged and supportive audience is essential. Engage with your followers regularly by regularly replying to comments and messages, asking them questions and taking up their suggestions. It is important to keep on thinking of such ways to increase your fan base and build a supportive community of followers.

YouTubing is a field where one needs to keep expanding constantly expertise and content and not be afraid to try new things. If being creative and thinking outside of the box is what gets your heart pumping, then this may be your go-to profession.

EXPLORE A CAREER AS A MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNICIAN AND OPTOMETRIST

What is the Medical Lab Technology?

Bachelor in Medical Lab Technology is a 3-year undergraduate course designed to equip eligible candidates with an advanced learning in both routine and sophisticated laboratory diagnostic procedures. Students enrolled to the course are taught to perform tests that aid in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Eligibility Criteria

  • Students who wish to enroll B.Sc MLT course have to qualify their 10+2 in the area of science.
  • The candidate should pass their 10+2 with a minimum percentage of 50 or equivalent (depends on different colleges) from the recognized education board in the country.

Career opportunities for the students       

  • Laboratory technologist at pharmaceutical laboratories, Pathology labs, Public Health Laboratories, Hospitals, Research and product development etc.
  • Research Scholar/Scientist
  • Blood Bank
  • Medical Officer
  • Laboratory Manager
  • Assistant Professor
  • Laboratory Technician at Government Hospitals by HRB recruitments

EXPLORE A CAREER AS A OPTOMETRIST

What is Optometry?

  • A health care profession that involves examining the eyes and applicable visual system for defects or abnormalities as well as prescribing the correction for refractive error with glasses or contact lenses and treatment of the diseases.
  • Duration Of Course: 3 years theory +1 year internship In reputed hospital

Eligibility Criteria

  • Students who wish to pursue B. Optom course have to qualify their 10+2 in the area of science.
  • The candidate should pass their 10+2 with a minimum aggregate of 50% marks or equivalent (depends on different colleges) from the recognized education board.

Career opportunities for the students:

  • Students after completing their 4 year Bachelor in Optometry Course can work in
  • Reputed Eye Hospital
  • Start their own Private Practice
  • Work as a Consultant Optometrist in Retail Outlet
  • Consultant Optometrist in Multi-national Companies
  • Research Optometrist
  • Assistant Professor and Professor in Reputed Optometry Colleges across the countries.

Effective Blogging: The Road ahead

In 2022, the fifth most reliable source for online information has been rated to be the Blogs. Each month, nearly, 409 million people view more than 20 billion pages. That’s quite a huge number! So, you know why there has been a steady upsurge in blogging.

A blog according to Wikipedia is a discussion or informational website published on the internet, often informal diary-style posts.

This article will have two sections. First, how pandemic affected the blogging industry and second, some effective guidelines for writing good blogs.

Now, we will discuss how the COVID-19 pandemic has its impact on blogging industry. Though the nature of the work is staying indoors but a survey conducted by firstsiteguide.com shows that 63.88% have been affected directly. Likewise, many had to alter their habits, pay higher prices, withdraw various services, and find a new method. Nearly, 46.50% of bloggers say that they have been blogging more since the pandemic. Whereas, 27.18% say that they blogged less, while the rest didn’t transform their blogging behaviour. However, some posted less as they weren’t motivated enough. Traffic has also been affected during the pandemic, only 54.27% of blogs getting more traffic. Since blogging revenue is directly connected to the amount of online traffic, around 35.19% of bloggers say that their revenue increased. On the other hand, 25.13% of bloggers had less revenue. The rest stated no significant changes.

blogger income bar graph
Courtesy: firstsiteguide.com

So, now this article will throw some light on 9 effective steps for blogging. Though this is not exhaustive but you can read through to sail smoothly.

The first thing you learn when you’re blogging is that people are one click away from leaving you. So, you’ve got to get to the point, you can’t waste people’s time, you’ve got to give them some value for their limited attention span.

Alex Tabarrok

Tabarrok rightly puts it that your writing style will be the ultimate mantra for an effective blog. With limited attention span of your audience, you can either entice them or keep them at bay with just one click.

  1. Write for yourself first – To take the first step towards blogging; At first write for yourself. Have a critical mind to analyze beyond your ideas.
  • Think, whether you are liking your write-up.
  • Question yourself: Will you, as an audience, like to read the whole text? If not, why?
  • Work both on your strengths and your weaknesses. This is a key element to decipher your connection with your readers. 
  1. Get concepts from your audience- Audience is your patron. They will guide you to sail through this online race. So, if you can connect with them on regular basis, they will suggest your topics. But before that be careful, you must listen to your inner calling. Like, which genre of writing will keep you afloat even after 6 months or years after?

Hope, you don’t want to quit the scene. Right! So, hang on!

  1. Comprehend your audience- Don’t ever under estimate your audience. They will give you feedback regarding your blogs. So, keep an open mind for constructive criticism. This process will aid you to sharpen your skill as a blogger.

Always keep an open dialogue with them and work on their suggestions to perfect your art of business.

  1. Love your present readers – Whenever you have published your blog on platforms like, WordPress or Blogger etc. You will have your set of audience. That means you have offered your blog for the outer world to add their comments. They will judge you, appreciate you or moreover can troll you. But you may never know when your blog can become viral? Though there is a debate whether every viral content is worth sharing or not but you can’t deny the fact that it has immense power to get noticed!

So, love your existing readers and respect their opinions.

  1. Be consistent – This is a mantra for every business i.e., consistency. Write on regular basis either daily, weekly or fortnightly. But if you are serious in your business, write on daily basis. Fix on your ideas, research well, be careful with your references. DON’T ever indulge in plagiarism. Respect others work to earn your respect.

You can be inspired by others but structure your blog according to your own niche style.

  1. Keep it short – There is a saying in the field of journalism – KISS & TELL. That means Keep It Short Simple & Tell the Story. It goes with the concept of effective blogging too. When your audience is a click away to skip your page. The method to hold on to your audience, is to tell a story, in a few words.

We can say, brevity is the key.

  1. Give it time – Believe me, if you love to write. You will give your time no matter what? So, time will pay you dividends. It will gain your regular audience. There is an audience for every genre of writing.
  • Focus on your daily target.
  • Try to write at least 500 words daily.
  • Make it a habit. As if you are writing on your diary.
  1. Write catchy headlines – Headline is said to be the crest of every write-up. So, if it fails to convey the message well to your readers; then forget about your efforts on your research. You must think captivating headlines that will trigger interest in your audience to read your blog till the end.

So, practice writing enticing headlines to grab attention of your readers but remember Don’t misguide them!

  1. Be Yourself – This is what will give that niche touch to your blogs. Have that personal touch. Don’t pretend to be what you are not. Your readers know you through your blogs, so be an open book, which can be read whenever they feel like.

So, we come to an end of this blog. Hope you enjoyed reading and start blogging from today!

Reference

  1. https://optinmonster.com/blogging-statistics/#:~:text=General%20Blogging%20Statistics,sites%20are%20written%20in%20English.
  2. https://firstsiteguide.com/blogging-industry-survey/#pdf

BLURB

The 10 most fascinating insights from blogging industry

  1. The majority of bloggers are millennials (people aged 25 to 34).
  2. For 14.08% of people, the greatest challenge was starting a blog.
  3. 91.65% of bloggers recommend starting a blog if you don’t have one yet.
  4. 28.83% of bloggers use GoDaddy web hosting services, followed by Bluehost with 9.90%.
  5. 59.81% of bloggers make money through blogging.
  6. 18.74% say that affiliate marketing is their top revenue source.
  7. 44.56% recommend YouTube as the second most popular revenue channel.
  8. 54.08% of bloggers say that they get the most traffic from social media.
  9. 33.40% of bloggers get ideas for new post topics on social media.
  10. 63.88% of blogs were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and 46.50% of bloggers say that they have been blogging more since the pandemic started