Individual’s life is not like a bed of roses. It is the combination of happiness and sorrow, hopes and aspirations, ups and downs and many more. Always life pattern follows the normal probability curve .So in the life of human beings there is always a need for proper directions to chose from right and wrong , to decide his own path of progress according to his own abilities and disabilities , to make his own decision and to carry his own liabilities. In this path of life he may face failures. So instead of being disappointed, feel depressed, being anxious, developing stress he should maintain a good balanced mental health. Some persons are well equipped with strong mind power and support system where as some are not. Hence they need outside support to move ahead. Here comes the role of Counselling.
Counselling to common person may be similar with the word of Guidance. But it is really not like that. Guidance has a much more wider scope and is broad than that of Counselling. Anybody with proper knowledge, skill and experience can guide a person who is in need of it. Whereas counselling is one of the many services provided under guidance .It requires specific qualifications and skill. Counsellor must be able to handle all types of technical supports that is used in the process of counselling. It is a two way interaction between the counsellor and the counsellee.
Types of Counselling:
It is a well known fact that no two individuals are alike. There exits individual differences. It is not feasible to adopt any one type of counseling service to solve the problems of individuals with varied needs .Depending on the nature of the problem, many types of counseling services may be applied. Generally there are three types of counselling like –
- Counsellor centered Counseling or Directive Counselling:
In this type of counselling the counsellor plays the major or pivotal role. The main exponent of this was E.G. Williamson (1950) of Minnesota University. In this type of counselling the counsellor listens to the problems of the client, decides the way out, encourages and motivates the client to act in a desired way. It is the counsellor who takes all the decisions about the counsellee but with the consent of the counsellee. There are six steps in counsellor centered counseling like analysis, synthesis, diagnosis , prognosis , counselling and follow up .At first the counsellor collects information about the client . Then at the second stage he finds out the liabilities, weaknesses and strong points about the client .In the next stage he anticipates the pros and cons of the procedures to be adopted .Then the counselling is provided and that is to be followed up.
- Client centered or Nondirective counseling :
In this type of counselling client plays the active role. The main advocate of non-directive or client-centred or permissive counselling is Carl R. Rogers. This type of counselling believes on the potentialities of the client.It is stated that the client is having enough abilities to solve his own problem.The Counsellor should provide proper opportunities to the client.Carl Rogers has given the following steps of this non-directive counselling— Defining the Problematic Situation, Free Expression of Feelings, Classification of Positive and Negative Feelings., Development of Insight, and Termination of Counselling Situation.
- Eclectic Counselling:
This is a combination of both directive and non directive counselling. F. C. Throne advocates for this type of counselling. In this type of counselling the counsellor may start with directive approach but when the situation demands, he may incorporate non-directive technique.
Need of Counseling in today’s Context:
It is a well known fact that the time is changing as well as the society. Hence at times it becomes difficult for the individual to cope up with this change. As per psychologist Ericksons’s view in human being there exits two types of forces. When one is able to adapt the situation perfectly, he proceeds or else there may be conflicts or confusions. This needs to be systematically removed. Some people have well equipped defense mechanisms to adjust, whereas, some may not have. Those who fails, to do so may face different types of behavioral problems or need the help of competent persons or counsellors. It is not that the people need counselling to solve the behavioral problems only. Counselling is needed for proper, personal, educational and occupational or vocational choices in life.
Now in the present situation in the wake of Covid-19 , where there are negativity every where, counselling is needed by all, irrespective of age, area and sex to remain calm, to develop positivity in their attitude and behavior, to find mental peace and pace in the society as a whole . So it can be rightly said that counselling is a ray of hope in the present situation.
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