10 years of evolution of electronic technology and a sneak peek into the near future | Adamas University

10 years of evolution of electronic technology and a sneak peek into the near future

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10 years of evolution of electronic technology and a sneak peek into the near future

Subject line: Recent advances in the entwined fields of electronics and nanotechnology and the subsequent impact on every aspect of human life.

Massive improvement and subsequent advancement have taken place in the field of electronic technology through out the last decade. And the impact of such magnificent yet rapid technical enhancements is clearly visible on the social and economic status of contemporary world. Everyday life looks nothing like what it used to look just a few years back. Further, the recent pandemic has clearly proven the significance of technology in every sector of human life. In such venture, science and technology has posed as our best friend. Life-saving technological creativity and innovation has attained unprecedented heights over the last decade. A collection of wonderful electronic devices and subsequent gadgets are acting as magic wands to make our everyday life easier, safer and more productive. In the recent past, several viable electronic solutions have been proposed to combat the challenges in almost all aspects of human life. These include communication, clinical necessities, defense, transit and of course economy and employment. This would not be an exaggeration to say that during the last decade, the world has undergone a silent technological revolution that surely is the most significant one after the British industrial revolution in 1760. And the contribution of electronic devices in this magnificent transformation is undeniable. Several severe challenges in all of the afore mentioned domains have been successfully addressed through the use of efficient and cost-effective electronic solutions. This has been made possible by the excellent performance of semiconductor devices. The physical size of semiconductor device has decreased drastically over the last ten years. According to Moore’s law, thirty-two times enhancement is possible in circuits based on semiconductor devices over a period of a decade. Subsequently, the size of the semiconductor devices has been reduced to a few tens of nanometers. This article offers a glimpse on the dazzling evolution of electronic technology and the entwined impact on dear world.

While talking of advancements in the field of tele-communication, the first thing that surfaces in our mind is the good old telephone and its replacement with handy cellular phones. Ten to twelve years back, people were wondering at the marvels of Nokia1100 and its counterparts. We had no clue that this decade will transform the simple wireless mobile phones into Artificial Intelligence (AI) enabled smartphones. The basic Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) mobiles with monophonic ringtones are replaced with Android smart phones. Finger print sensors, face recognition, multiple front and rear cameras are some of the widely available, basic features. Personalized search engines, excellent data streaming, crystal-clear video-calling, multitasking, gaming etc. are common amenities. This has been made possible due to the excellent quad-core processors that lay in the heart of these mobile phones. Superfast processors have speed ranging from 2.3GHz for MediaTek Helio G35 that has fast octa-core Arm Cortex-A53 CPU to 2.45-2.8GHz for Snapdragon Qualcomm 845 mobile platform. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Light Emitting Diodes (LED) displays are capable of providing excellent submerging view. In this context, it deserves mention that tele-viewing has undergone spectacular changes in the past few years. Smart televisions with optoelectronic sensors and AI are endowed with High Dynamic Range (HDR) processors. Such new generation TVs are capable of adjusting screen brightness, radiation, contrast, etc. with room ambience.  Besides, the advent of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) technology has revolutionized on-air transmission. Mobile network has upgraded from 3G to 4G. And we are looking forward to 5G. Ten years has resulted in ten times faster communication. Data download speed has increased from approximately 2MB to 15MB per second. Data streaming has almost become unlimited and free of cost. Communication, download and streaming while on transit have become super sophisticated and popular at the same time. Industries related to mobile phone manufacturing and network providers have reached boom.

Excellent online connectivity has resulted in a true world wide web in the fullest sense of the words. Even they remotest corners of the country are connected with cosmopolitan cities. This has provided access for students from all strata of the society to various levels of education that include professional as well as academic courses. Online education has provided students with the experience of world class academia from top ranking universities from all over the world. Medical consultation from the best clinical facilities have become possible from almost anywhere on the globe. Depending on online shopping a number of small-scale entrepreneurs and large-scale industries that are capable of controlling the economy have evolved and flourished. Not to forget mile stones like digital India and sage cashless transactions.

Medical facilities have immensely developed with the support of technology. Personalized medicine and continuous patient-specific health monitoring have become possible with the help of advanced biomedical electronics. Genetic engineering, genomic sequencing, artificial body part implantation, neuron-on-chips and brain cell rejuvenation no longer exist only in science fictions. A description of the recent advances in bio-medical electronics definitely remains incomplete without a mention of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology and present-day biomedical engineering are closely entwined. Over the last decade, dramatic advancement in various interlinked and interdisciplinary domains such as nanomedicine, nano-diagnostics and ‘nano-theranostics’ has ushered in a new era in medical science. Nanotechnology has acted as an efficient tool that has enabled the design of functional materials and new devices that are suitable for biomedical applications. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one such example. They are technically referred to as quantum dots.  The common uses of such nano-dots include opto-electronic imaging for diagnosing life-threatening diseases like tumor, cancer etc. Various metals and their oxides are being used for fabricating nano-dots and -particles. Further, Graphene, Graphene-like two-dimensional nanostructures of carbon, Carbon Nano Tubes (CNTs) are being explored as prospective materials for efficient therapeutics. Most importantly, for the post pandemic earth, with unforeseen virus, bacteria and germs lurking everywhere, nano-therapeutics in conjunction with smart bio-electronic devices promise superior detection as well as better antibacterial/antiviral protection. Quantum tunneling based nanogap sensors, multi-functional UV sterilizers, oximeters, self-cleaning bottles, etc. are some of the most astonishing cutting-edge inventions in the field of bio-electronics. Drug-delivery has attained new heights with nanotechnology. Several nano-engineered materials possess immense potential. Engineers and bio-scientists believe them to be capable of overcoming almost all the drawbacks related to conventional antibiotics or antiviral drugs. Bio-medical engineers and nano-technologists are exploring the possible toxic and adverse side effects of this new generation of nano-medicines and bio-electronic therapeutics. This being done, the promising new genre of treatment will take over the existing clinical domain.

Surveillance and therefore, security have immensely improved with the use of excellent closed circuit monitoring systems. Motion sensors and allied opto-electronic systems, light weight yet powerful drones are being really helpful for the defense fraternity. The contributions of electro-mechanical systems are so vast that a new genre has developed, namely Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) and Nano-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (NEMS).

Finally, the astonishing electric vehicles do deserve mention. Super advanced embedded systems in conjunction with excellent robotic sensors are being used for driving and monitoring such vehicles. Automated Variable Transmission (AMT) and Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) have revolutionized the driving experience. And of course, thanks to modern electronics, completely self-driven cars are just round the corner. In conclusion, all that may be said is if the 2010s were the gateway of transition, then the 2020s are definitely going to be a roller-coaster sci-fi ride.

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