The application of science and technology in connection with the detection of crime is the Forensic Science. ‘Forensic science’ word has been originated from the Latin word forēnsis, which means “of or before the forum”. During Roman times, criminal charges were presented before a group of public individuals in the forum. Both the individual accused of the crime and the accuser would give dialogue in their favour. The judgement was taken granted in favor of the individual who could produce the best argument and delivery. Thus, the word ‘forensic’ was used in a two-fold way – as a legal evidence, and as a sort of public presentation. Forensic investigation was marked in 16th-century, when European medical practitioners started to gather information on the cause and manner of death. It is reported that two Italian surgeons, Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia, established modern Pathology. They studied the structural changes of the human body after death. In 18th century, criminal investigation passed through a major paradigm shift, it became a more evidence based than the use of torture to force confessions of the accused. In retrospective point of view, the use of fingerprint was found in ancient kingdom of southern India in the eighteenth century. During the nineteenth century, the cases of death due to poisoning had raised issues to the law enforcement agencies. As a result, it was felt for isolating, detecting and estimating various poisons absorbed in the human body. The fact initiates the establishment of the first Chemical Examiner’s Laboratory at the then Madras Presidency during 1849. More such laboratories were set up at Calcutta (1853), at Agra (1864) and at Bombay (1870). Later on, it was felt to keep record of anthropometric identification of criminals and Anthropometric Bureau was established in 1892 at Calcutta. Edward Richard Henry established world’s first fingerprint bureau at Calcutta in July 1897. In this way the personnel identification is being assisted on the basis of fingerprints in India. The importance of Forensic Serology was also felt as well. As a result, an institute named as Serology Department was set in Calcutta in 1910. Many other forensic bureaus were established in the then Calcutta during early twentieth century in the British time. For example, in 1915, a Footprint Section was established under the CID, Government of Bengal, to recognize criminals over the examination of footprints collected from the crime scene. During 1936, a Scientific Section was established under the CID, West Bengal to provide facilities for examination of bullets, cartridge cases, firearms, etc., used in criminal activities. Later on, a number of state forensic laboratories were established throughout the country. The first state forensic science laboratory in India was established in the year 1952 at Calcutta. The Legal medical Section of the Chemical Laboratory was taken into this laboratory. Also the Physics and Chemistry unit was developed into a full-fledged laboratory in 1957. The Footprint and the Note Forgery Sections of Criminal Investigation Department were brought to this laboratory later on. During late twentieth century, a number of Central Forensic Science Laborites (CFSL) are established throughout the country. They include CFSL, Calcutta; CFSL, Hyderabad; CFSL, Chandigarh.
Given the crime rising in the nation and statistics going through the roof, the demand for professionals in the forensic science field is growing exponentially. Thus, Forensic science remains to increase its possibility and variety. Also highly specialized disciplines are enforcing to be included in the forensic science. As a result, there is a growing necessity for education in all aspects of the field of forensic science. A properly focused education in forensic science is essential not only for future forensic scientists, but also as a means to keep current practitioners abreast of emerging new technologies. To meet up the situation, more forensic science departments are necessary to be incorporate in the educational institutions along with the forensic research laboratories. This is potentially felt as because of the endless career opportunities in this field due to the increase in the number of crimes in the world. So, job opportunities in the field of forensic science are also endless. One can find a job anywhere in India or foreign countries after the completion of forensic academic programmes.
The first step one need to take to become a Forensic Expert is to opt for a bachelor’s degree in Forensic. There are various undergraduate degrees offered in education sectors, after which the candidate can opt for a career as a Forensic Expert. Some of these are B.Sc. Forensic Science, M.Sc. Forensic Science. Many universities and institutions are established in the country. But very seldom is found in the eastern India, whereas the initial initiative for the establishment of Forensic Science laboratories started at Calcutta. It is worthy to be mentioned that only Adamas University has established Forensic Science Department to run the Forensic Science academic programmes in this region. With an increasing demand, many sectors in forensic science are being opened. They include Forensic Biology, Forensic Serology, Forensic Ballistics, Forensic Chemistry, Forensic Botany, Forensic Entomology, Forensic Toxicology, Forensic Psychology, Clinical Forensic Medicine, Cytology, Dactyloscopy etc. There are many recruiters in the country also. For examples, Intelligence Bureau (IB), Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Hospitals, Police Departments, Law Firms, Defense/Army, Central Govt. Forensic Sciences Labs, Private Detective Agencies, Quality Control Bureau, Banks, Universities, and many more.
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